A

Abbreviations

accuracy 1220

mathematical signs and 2558

scientific and engineering terms 2556-2559

symbols for mechanics 2559

welding 1384

Abrasive

belt

applications 1200

cutting off difficulties 1203

grinding 1200-1201

rotative speeds 1204

selection 1200-1201

contact wheel selecting 1202

cubic boron nitride (CBN) 770, 1148, 1165, 1174

cutting 1200-1203

diamond 1147

grains and materials 1147

grinding 1147

honing 1203-1205

lapping 1205-1208

polishing 1409

stones for honing 1205

Absolute

system of measurement 157

temperature 2599

viscosity 2338

zero 2599

Acceleration 157, 182-185

angular 184

constant 182

linear, of point on rotating body 184

of gravity, g 157

Accuracy

effect of, on part tolerances 1219

of NC machine tools 1217-1218

positioning 1215

repeatability, and resolution, NC 1215

significance of 1217-1218

Acme leadscrews 2475

Acme threads

abbreviations 1827-1828

angle of thread 1826

ANSI Standard 1826-1844

centralizing 1833-1844

checking 1909

diameter allowances 1826

diameter tolerances 1826

drill sizes for 920

form 1826

general purpose 1826-1833

length of engagement 1826

multiple start 1827-1828

stub 1844

alternative 1847

60-degree 1847

thread profile form 1826-1835

tolerances application 1838

types of 1826, 1835, 1838

wire sizes for checking 1909

Active face width 2030

Acute-angle triangles solution 70, 100-101

Addendum 2030

chordal 2049-2050

modification 2078

involute spur and helical gears 2078

Addition

decimal fractions 10

fractions and mixed numbers 9

matrix 129

Additives

lubricant properties 2342

oil 2340

plastics 552

Adhesives

acrylic 2495

bonding 2494

moisture cured polyurethane 2497

one-component 2496

retaining compounds 2497

rubber cements 2497

sealants 2498

threadlocking 2498

two-component 2494

types 2494-2495

Adjoint of a matrix 131

Adjusting gear blanks for milling 2094

Aerospace screws, bolts and nuts 1806

Aero-thread 1891

Aging of metal 461

Air bending 1275

Airdry wood, weight per cubic foot 387

AISI-SAE

alloy steels 404-405

carbon steels 402-403

Algebra and equations 29

Algebraic

expressions and formulas 30

rearrangement and transposition of terms 29

Alignment of shafts 2526-2554

Allowances and tolerances

allowance defined 627, 633

allowance for forced fits 629

application 628

bending sheet metal 1278, 1285

cylindrical fits, ANSI Standard for 633

fits 627-633

metric ISO, British Standard for 661-670

preferred series 634

tolerance defined 627, 633

unilateral and bilateral tolerances 627

Alloy cast iron 1309

Alloy steels 397

AISI-SAE designations 400-401

basic numbering system 398, 400

carburizing grades 413

casting 1312

compositions 404-405, 1313, 2147

directly hardenable grades 414-415

drilling and reaming 1031-1034

effects of alloying elements 2148

electrodes (welding)

current to use with 1362

elongation 1313

forged and rolled 2146

gears 2146

hardness of heat-treated 424-429

heat treatments 491

mechanical properties 424-429, 1313

milling 1015-1018

numbering system 398, 400

strength of heat-treated 424-429

tensile strength 1313

turning 997-1000

Alloys

aluminum 529-537

antimony 543

bearing 1322, 2262-2264

binary 399

brazing 1331-1337

cast steels 1311

copper 513-528

copper-beryllium 527-528

copper-silicon 527

die casting 1320

magnesium 544, 546

nickel 547-548

nonferrous 512

numbering systems for 398

quaternary 399

soldering 1329

ternary 399

titanium 547, 549

Alphabet, phonetic 2604

Alternating current motors 2483-2486

Alternating stress 203

Aluminum

alloys 529-537

anodizing 1412

characteristics 542

chemical composition 533, 536-537

electrical conductivity 542

elongation 533-541

high corrosion resistance 542

mechanical properties 542

temper 533-541

ultimate tensile strength 533-541

workability 542

yield strength 533-541

Association 530, 533

bearing material 2265

bending 1277

cast composition 533

characteristics of 529

clad alloys 541-542

coefficient of expansion 377

density 377

designations 533

die casting 1320

elongation 391

heat treatability of wrought 541

machining 1123

melting point 377

soldering 1329

specific heat 377

structural shapes 2517

temper designation 530-533

tensile strength 391

thermal conductivity 377

welding 1365

wrought 541

yield strength 391

American

Boiler Makers Association 289

Brass Company 527

Foundrymen's Association 461

Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) 2033, 2036, 2069

Institute of Steel Construction 288

column formulas 286

Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 398, 400

National Standards Institute x, 2080

(see also ANSI Standard )

Society for Metals (ASM) 429

Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 461, 508, 544-546, 1309

copper alloys 512

Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) x, 2080

(see Index of Standards )

wire gage 2519

AMO thread 1887-1890

design dimensions 1889

design requirements 1888

formulas 1889

gage testing 1888

lengths of engagement 1888

limit of size 1890

swiss screw thread 1890

symbols 1889

tolerances and allowances 1888, 1890

Analysis, break-even 144-147

Analytical geometry 39-54

Angle

between lines tangent to two circles 697

between two lines 42

compound 118-120

cutting tool 734

degrees into radians 102, 104

functions of 94-113

helix 1966

indexing 1991

involute functions of 109-113

lead 1966

length of arc of given radius 72, 76-78

length of chord 72, 76-78

measuring by disc method 695

minutes, seconds into decimal degrees 103

minutes, seconds into radian 102

radian into degrees 102-104

sine bar for measuring 677-687

structural 2514-2516

bent to circular shape, lengths of 2507

moment of inertia 2514-2516

radius of gyration 2514-2516

section modulus 2514-2516

weight per foot 2514-2516

taper per foot corresponding to 696

thread, tolerances on gages 1918

to find, given taper per foot 695-697

tolerance, single point tool 751

trigonometric functions of 105-108

useful relationships among 105

Angular

acceleration 184

torque, relation to 187

backlash in gears 2074

indexing 1991-2010

velocity 182-184

of rotating bodies 183

Annealing 408, 461

constant temperature, transformation 483

temperatures

carbon steel 483

stainless 494-495

tungsten 499

Annuities (calculation of) 137-138

Anode 1298

Anodizing 1413

hard 1417

ANSI Standard

abbreviations 2556, 2559

Acme threads 1826-1844

bolts, nuts, screws, washers

inch 1445-1487

bolts, nuts, screws, washers

metric 1488-1492

boring tools 875, 879

carbide 875-876

buttress inch screw thread 1851

cap screws

inch hex 1449

inch slotted head 1586-1587

inch socket head 1588

metric 1488-1491

socket head 1501

chain, transmission 2451-2456

clearance fits 651-653, 656-657

core drills 864

cutting tools 740-756

cylindrical fits 627

diamond wheels 1171-1176

dowel pins, hardened and ground 1655-1656

drawing and drafting practices 608

symbols

accuracy 1220-1223

between 611

comparison to ISO 611

concentricity 1222

controlled radius 611

diameter 611

parallelism 611

part tolerance 611, 649

perpendicularity 611

position 611, 1220

roundness 611

runout 611

section lining 610

statical tolerance 611

total runout 611, 1223

welding 1381

drill drivers 863, 866

collet type 863

drive screws 1622

drive studs 1663

electric socket and lamp base threads 1885

engineering drawings 609

fine-pitch

helical gears 2109-2112

standard gear tooth parts 2041

worm gearing 2096-2099

fire hose connection threads 1875

fits 634

hole basis 652-655

shaft basis 656-659

flat metal products

inch sizes 2522-2523

metric sizes 2523

gagemakers tolerances 660

gages 1911-1919

for self-holding tapers 932

for Unified screw threads 1912-1919

usage, recommended 660

gear tooth forms 2036

geometric characteristic symbols 611

geometric dimensioning and tolerancing 612

grinding wheel safety 1177-1181

grinding wheels 1149-1157, 1165, 1174

grooved pins 1662

hexagon socket head shoulder screws 1592

hexagon spline socket set screws 1595

hose coupling screw threads 1874-1877

interference fits 651, 654-655, 1878-1883

involute splines 2157, 2161

metric module 2177-2182

key drive 929-930

keys and keyseats 2373

keys and keyways 807

knurls and knurling 1210-1214

letter symbols for mechanics 2559

limits and fits 633-659

lock washers 1472-1476

M profile thread

design profile 1787

designations 1804

limits of size 1797

tolerances of internal threads 1794

machine screws 1549-1558

binding head 1557

fillister head 1555

flat, countersunk head 1550-1552

hexagon washer head 1552

metric 1565-1571

oval head 1555-1557

pan head 1554

round head 1558

slotted hexagon 1553

truss head 1553

manufacturers' standard gage for sheet steel 2522

metric

cap screws 1488-1491

clearance fits 652-653, 656-657

hex flange nuts 1508

hex flange screws 1496

interference fits 654-659

nut thread series 1510

nut tops 1508

nuts 1506, 1512

retaining rings 1669-1677

screw 1500

screw threads, M profile 1783-1804

screw threads, MJ profile 1805-1808

screws, bolts, nuts, and washers 1488-1492

slotted hex nuts 1508

square neck bolts 1496-1497

transition fits 654-655, 658-659

microscope threads 1885

milling cutters 785-813

miniature threads 1764-1768

nuts 1445-1449

pins 1652-1668

pipe thread 1861-1870

plain washers 1469-1472, 1515

preferred

basic sizes 672

fits 651

metric limits and fits 638

metric sizes 647, 672

thicknesses, thin, flat metals 2522

reamers 827-841

retaining rings 1669-1677

rivets 1640-1642

roundness symbols 1221

runout symbols 1223

screw thread symbols 1826-1835, 1838, 1847, 1879

metric 1785

screw threads 1712, 1719-1763, 1783-1844, 1851, 1882

metric MJ profile 1805-1808

screws and bolts

hex structural bolts 1498

hexagon socket 1506

metric 1488, 1492-1495

metric hex bolts 1499

metric neck bolts 1496

square neck bolts 1497

section lining symbols 610

self-tapping thread inserts 1622

self-threading screws

inch 1607-1617

metric head types 1624

serrations, involute 2157

set-screws

heads and points 1593-1596

socket type 1594, 1599

shoulder screws 1592

slotted headless set screws 1593

spindles and drives for portable tools 948-951

spline socket set screws 1594, 1599

splines, involute

metric module 2177-2182

spring pin 1667

spur gear tooth forms 2036

square head set screws 1596

straight pins 1658

surface finish 723

surface texture 709

symbols 660

accuracy symbols 1223

concentricity 611

diameter 1221

for section lining 610

tang drives 927-928

tapers 924-936

thread dimension 1880

threads for electric sockets 1885

thumb screws 1697-1705

T-nuts, T-bolts, T-slots 1632-1634

tolerances 634

allowances for cylindrical fits 627

gagemakers 660

symbols 611

tooth proportions 2040

transition fits 651, 654-655

twist drills 842-865

Unified threads 1712, 1719-1769

washers

inch 1469-1476

metric 1511, 1514

wing nuts and screws 1697-1705

wood screws 1707

woodruff keys 2391-2394

worm gearing, fine pitch 2096-2099

wrench openings 1463

Antifriction bearings 2270-2324

Apothecaries measure

fluid 2583

weight 2587

Applications nickel alloys 547-548

APT (automatically programmed tool)

axis nomenclature 1260

Arbors

circular saw 948

diameters for spring-winding 350

dimensions of centers 827

keys and keyways for 807

milling cutters 803

shell reamer 838

standard milling machine 938-942

Arc

checking radius of 700

cutting 1367

electric, cutting of metals 1367-1368

length of given angle and radius 72, 76-78

plasma precision cutting 1367

plasma welding 1363

welding 1338-1363

Area

circle 45, 72

circular

ring 73

ring sector 45, 73

sector 72

segments 45, 72, 77-78

cycloid 72

donut 45

ellipse 48, 74

elliptical section 48

enclosed by cycloidal curve 67

fillet 73

finding by Simpson's rule 66

geometrical figures 69-80

hexagon 71

hyperbola 74

irregular outline 66

octagon 71

parabola 73-74

segment of 74

parallelogram 69

plane figures 69-80

plane surface of irregular outline 66

polygon 71

rectangle 69

spandrel 73

square 69

surface of revolution 65-66

trapezium 71

trapezoid 70

triangle 70

units 2579

units and conversion of 2579-2581

various sections 235-244

volume 65-86

Argon, welding gas 1342, 1350, 1363

Arithmetical

operations, sequence of 5

progressions 36-37

ASA Code for transmission shafting 300

ASME Standard surface finish 723

Asperities 2333

ASTM Plastics 553

Atmospheric pressure 2590

Austempering 461, 478

Austenite 465, 469

Autocollimation 1218-1219

Automatic screw machines 1101-1106

knurling on 1101

Avoirdupois or commercial weight 2587

Azimuth reading displacements 1218

B

B & S automatic screw machines 1101

Babbitt metals 2262-2264

properties of 2264

SAE general information 2262

Backlash 2031

allowance in checking gears by the pin method 2140

bevel gears 2070

calculation 2068

control of allowances in production 2071

control of in assemblies 2073

determining proper amount of 2068

excess depth of cut 2071

fine-pitch gears 2072

gearing 2068-2074

hypoid gears 2070

recommended for gears 2070

Ball bearing (see Bearings: ball )

Ball screw assemblies 2475

Balls, standard 2324-2332

grades 2327

hardness corrections for curvatures 2330

hardness ranges 2328

materials 2327

number per kilogram 2332

number per pound 2331

ordering specifications 2325

package markings 2316

preferred gages 2325

preferred sizes 2326, 2329-2330

tolerances 2327

Band brakes 2368

coefficient of friction 2370

simple and differential 2369

Band saw

blade selection 1108-1109

blade types 1109

break-in 1112-1113

speed and feed 1110

speed for cutting materials 1111-1112

speeds and feeds, metal cutting 1110-1112

tooth forms 1109

Barrel

effect 1299

liquid capacity 2583

volume 86

Base

circle 2031, 2158

diameter 2158

helix angle 2031

oils for metal cutting 1116

pitch 2031

spur gear, diameter 2036

tooth thickness 2031

Basic

endurance limit 2078

gear dimensions 2042

rack profiles 2181

size 627

space width 2158

Baumé's hydrometer 382

conversion 381

Beams 257-273, 2507-2513

channel 2513, 2517

combined stresses in 212-215

curved 276

deflections 257-268, 274-278

designing for 274-278

fixed at one end 269-273

I-beams 2507-2512, 2517

rectangular solid 269-273

stresses in 210, 257-268

stresses produced by shocks 280

supported at both ends 257-273

Bearings 2219-2332

ball bearing 2270-2289, 2295

ABEC tolerances 2280-2285

ball bearing

alignment and squareness 2296

allowance for axial displacement in 2287

angular contact 2272

cage materials 2278

clamping and retaining methods 2298-2303

clearances, running 2305

closures 2298, 2303

deficiencies 2308

design and installation 2287

designation 2278, 2290

double row bearing 2272

equivalent thrust load 2314

failures 2308

fatigue life 2308

fits 2298, 2303

flanged housing 2278

friction losses 2303

handling precautions 2307

housing bore tolerances 2290-2291

housings, soft metal 2297

life 2308

adjustment factor application 2319

adjustment factor for material 2319

adjustment factors 2319

criterion 2308

limitations 2309

load ratings 2308

locknuts and shafts for 2300-2301

lockwashers for 2299

lubrication method 2305

materials for 2278

mounting 2295

precautions 2298

types 2306

pillow block 2278

plastics 2277

quiet or vibration-free mountings 2298

radial and angular contact 2310-2311

radial and axial clearance 2306

radial, deep groove and angular contact 2309

rating life 2310, 2317

reliability 2319

seating fits 2298

selection 2304

shaft

and housing fits for metric radial 2289

bore limits 2290-2291

housing fits 2287-2289

tolerance

classifications, metric 2288-2289

limits, metric 2289-2290

single row radial, filling slot 2271

single row radial, non filling slot 2271

soft metal and resilient housings 2297

special or unconventional types of 2277

ball bearing

squareness and alignment 2296

starting torque 2304

static

equivalent load 2322-2323

load criterion 2309

load ratings 2320

symbols 2270, 2272

thrust 2275, 2313

thrust load 2314

tolerances 2279, 2285

types 2271, 2309

grease packing guidlines 2349

guide 2222, 2261

hydrostatic 2222

journal 2230

allowable pressure 2235

bearing pressure 2234

capacity number 2237

classes 2235

clearance modulus 2235

diameter of bearing 2234

diametral clearance 2235

eccentricity ratio 2236

factor 2237

film thickness 2240

flow factor 2237

flow of lubricant 2237

friction horsepower 2237

friction torque 2236

hydrodynamic flow of lubricant 2237

length of bearing 2234

length to diameter ratio 2235

lubrication analysis 2240

operating temperature 2235

pressure 2235

pressure flow of lubricant 2239

temperature of mineral oils 2237

temperature rise 2239

torque parameter 2236

total flow of lubricant 2239

viscosity of lubricant 2235

keying 2224

laminated phenolic 2266

life adjustment factors 2319

lubricants and lubrication

grease 2228

journal bearings 2231, 2234, 2240

plain bearings 2227-2231

materials, plain 2261-2269

aluminum 2262, 2265

babbitt metals 2262

bronze 2264

cadmium alloys 2264

carbon-graphite 2265

cast iron 2265

compatibility 2261

conformability 2261

copper-lead 2262, 2264

materials, plain

corrosion resistance 2263

embeddability 2261

fatigue resistance 2261

graphitic 2267

laminated phenolics 2266

load capacity 2263

nylon 2266

plastics laminates 2266

porous 2266

properties 2261

rubber 2267

SAE compositions 2262

silver 2265

strength 2263

teflon (TFE) 2266

thermal conductivity 2263

tin-bronze 2262

white metal 2262-2263

wood 2267

needle 2275

loose roller 2276

symbols 2275

types of 2275

needle roller

designations of 2290

fitting and mounting practice 2292

roller and cage assemblies 2292

shaft and housing tolerances 2293-2294

tolerances 2285-2287

pillow block 2278

plain 2219-2269

allowable pressures 2234

boundary lubrication 2223

circumferential-groove 2219

classes of 2219

clearances 2234

controlled clearence noncontact seals 2225

cylindrical-overshot 2221

cylindrical-undershot 2221

design 2222-2259

design notation 2232

die casting in place 1322

displaced elliptical 2221

elliptical-overshot 2221

full film lubrication 2223

full film operational mode 2223

greases 2230

grooving feeding 2231

hardness and surface finish 2226

heat radiating capacity 2230

hydrostatic 2222

journal 2231

journal bearing oil grooving 2231

journal bearing types 2232

journal or sleeve 2219

keying methods 2224

length-to-diameter ratio 2234

plain

lubricants 2228

lubrication analysis 2234

lubrication methods 2227

machining 2226-2227

materials 2261

mixed-film lubrication mode 2223

modes of operation 2222, 2224

multiple-groove 2221

nutcracker 2221

oil bath lubrication 2228

oil feeding 2231

oil grooves 2230, 2234

oil ring lubrication 2228

operating temperatures 2235

pivot-shoe 2221

positive contact 2225

press or shrink fit 2224

pressure 2221

pressure lubrication 2227

pressure profile 2232

retaining methods 2224

rubbing seals 2225

sealing methods 2224-2226

sleeve 2231

solid lubricants 2230

splash lubrication 2227

static seals 2226

surface finish and hardness 2226

three-lobe 2221

types 2219-2222

viscosity temperature chart 2229

waste pack lubrication 2228

porous 2266

retention

dowel pin 2225

housing cap 2225

set screws 2224

woodruff key 2225

roller 2270-2324

ABEC and RBEC tolerances 2290

alignment and squareness 2296

allowance for axial displacement 2287

barrel roller 2273

barrel type 2277

bearing closures 2303

cage materials 2278

clamping and retaining methods 2298

closures 2303

cylindrical type 2273, 2277

deficiencies 2308

design and installation considerations 2287

designation of 2278, 2290

failures 2308

fatigue life 2308

fits 2298, 2303

flanged housing 2278

friction losses in 2303

roller

handling precautions 2307

high speed effects 2314

housing bore tolerances 2290-2291

housings, soft metal and resilient 2297

internal clearance 2314

life 2308

adjustment factors 2319

for application 2319

for material 2319

criterion 2308

life adjustment factors 2319

load ratings 2308

location and seating 2295-2303

locknuts and shafts 2300-2302

lockwashers 2299

lubrication 2305, 2314

materials for 2278, 2314

method of designation 2289-2290

mounting 2295

precautions 2298

type 2306

needle type 2292-2294

pillow block 2278

plastics 2277

quiet or vibration-free mountings 2298

radial 2316, 2324

radial and axial clearance 2306

radial load 2316

rating life 2315, 2317

reliability 2319

seating fits for 2298

selection 2304-2305

self-aligning 2275

shaft and housing fits for 2298, 2303

metric radial 2287-2289

soft metal and resilient housings 2297

special or unconventional types of 2277

spherical roller 2273

spherical type 2277

squareness and alignment 2296

static equivalent loads 2323-2324

static load criterion 2309

stress concentrations 2314

symbols 2270

tapered 2274

tapered roller thrust type 2274

thrust 2274-2275, 2285, 2317

tolerances for 2279-2287

torque, starting 2304

types of 2273, 2314

roller thrust

spherical roller 2275

sleeve 2230

spacing and shaft stiffness 2085

tapered

land thrust bearing 2243, 2252, 2257

roller bearings 2274

roller thrust bearings 2274

thrust bearing 2243, 2275

thrust bearing

ball 2275

symbols 2273

design notation 2244

flat plate design 2243, 2245-2250

depth of chamber 2247

film flow 2246

flow per chamber 2246-2247

friction power loss 2246

kinetic energy correction 2247

length of pad 2246

number of pad 2246

pitch line velocity 2246

radial pad width 2245

required oil flow 2246

flat plate type 2249

friction power loss 2247

leakage factor 2254

load 2244

parallel flat plate 2243

plain 2243

rated life 2313-2319

roller 2274-2275, 2317

symbols 2274-2275

static equivalent load 2323-2324

step design 2243, 2249-2252

depth of step 2251

film thickness 2251

friction power loss 2251

hydrodynamic oil flow 2251

length of pad 2251

number of pads 2251

pad step length 2251

pitch line circumference 2251

pitch line velocity 2251

radial pad width 2250

temperature rise 2251

tapered land design 2243, 2252, 2257

film thickness 2253

friction power loss 2254

length of pad 2253

number of pads 2253

oil film flow 2254

oil flow factor 2254

oil leakage factor 2253

pitch line circumference 2253

pitch line velocity 2253

radial pad width 2253

shape factor 2254

taper values 2253

tilting pad design 2243, 2257

bearing unit load 2258

dimensionless film thickness 2260

film thickness 2259

friction coefficient 2259

length of pad 2258

number of pads 2258

operating number 2258, 2260

pitch line velocity 2258

thrust bearing

radial pad width 2258

temperature rise 2259

tolerances 2285

tolerances 2279

metric ball and roller 2280-2287

needle roller 2279

thrust 2279

Belleville disc springs or washers 345, 351

(see also Springs: disc )

Belts and pulleys 2398-2450

flat belts 2401

length formula 2398

rules for diameters and speeds of pulleys 2398

speed limitations 2401

speed in compound drive 2400

synchronous belts 2442, 2446-2450

cross section 2448

designation 2442, 2448

horsepower rating 2449-2450

length determination 2446

pitch lengths 2445

pulley

and flange dimension 2444

diameter 2446-2447

size 2447, 2450

tolerances 2448

section dimension 2444

service factors 2442

storage and handling 2439

timing 2442

tolerances 2445

tooth dimensions 2443-2444

torque ratings 2448-2449

width factor 2450

width, finding 2449

widths and tolerances 2446

variable speed belts 2432-2437

arc of contact 2439

cross section selection 2436

degree 2437, 2439

designation 2435

dimension 2432

drive design 2435

groove dimension 2434

horsepower rating 2436-2437

length correction 2438

lengths 2433

sheave dimension 2434

sheave groove data 2435

speed ratio 2436

V-belts 2403-2441

belt lengths and center distances 2408

classical V-belts 2409-2416

arc of contact correction 2416

cross section correction factors 2408

datum length 2410

groove dimension 2411

horsepower ratings 2413

V-belts

length correction 2415

sheave dimensions 2410-2412

speed ratio correction 2415

double V-belts 2416-2424

arc of contact 2424

design method 2420

effective diameter 2419

effective length 2416

groove dimension 2417

length determination 2419

length-flex correction 2423

number of belts 2420

sheave dimension 2416-2417

tension 2424

tension ratings 2423-2424

tight side tension 2421

effective length 2401

horsepower ratings 2398

light duty V-belts 2424-2427

arc of contact 2424

designation 2424

dimensions 2425

groove dimension 2426

horsepower rating 2426

sheave dimension 2426

narrow V-belts 2403, 2408

arc of contact correction 2409

cross section selection 2407

groove dimension 2405-2406

horsepower ratings 2407

length correction factors 2409

number of belts 2409

sheave

dimensions 2403, 2405-2406

outside diameter 2407

size 2407

speed ratio correction factors 2408

ratio 2398

SAE belts and belting 2439

belt dimensions 2440

pulley dimensions 2440

service factors 2441

sheaves 2398

sixty (60)-degree 2439

storage and handling 2440-2441

V-ribbed belts 2427-2432

arc of contact correction 2431

cross-sections 2427

designation 2429

dimensions 2427

effective length 2430

grooved dimension 2428

horsepower rating 2429

length correction 2431

sheave dimension 2428-2429

speed ratio correction 2432

60 degree 2439

speed ratio correction 2437

Bend radii, sheet metal 1276

Bend radius

sheet metal, maximum 1276

sheet metal, minimum 1276

Bending

allowances, sheet metal 1285

formulas

for beams 268-269

formulas for beams 257-273

formulas for shafts 296-298

sheet metal 1275

stress in beams 257-278

structural angles 2514-2516

Bending load, wood 385

Bending moments units conversion 2593

Beryllium and copper alloys 528

Bevel gearing 2082-2096

ANSI/AGMA Standard 2086

applications of 2084

bearing spacing 2085

blanks 2084

bronze and brass gears 2148

chordal addendum 2096

chordal thickness 2094, 2096

circular pitch 2089

circular thickness 2096

cutting angle 2089

cutting teeth 2085

design 2084

dimensions 2088

face angle 2089

factors for offset of cutter 2093

formed cutters for 2090-2092

German standard tooth form 2122

hypoid gears 2083

materials for 2095

milled 2086, 2094

milling cutters for 805

milling setup 2093-2094

mountings 2085

nomenclature 2086

offset of cutter 2093

pitch cone 2088

pitch diameter 2088

planetary 2116

replacement gear dimensions 2155

selecting formed cutters for 2092

shaft stiffness 2085

spiral 2083

straight 2030, 2082, 2084

thickness of tooth 2089

types of 2082

typical steels used for 2095

Zerol 2030, 2083-2084

BHRA - British Hydromechanics Research Association 2352

Bilateral and unilateral tolerances 627

Binary multiples 2562

Binding head miniature screw 1560

Birmingham wire gage 2519

Birnie's equation 292

Blank diameters, drawing dies 1284, 1286

Blanking 1267

Blanks, sintered carbide 748

Blast cleaning of castings 1317

Block

brakes 2371

or multiple indexing 2022-2023

Block and spacer torque test 1524

Blow molding 580

Blow, force of 190

Boilers, strength of flat stayed surfaces 289

Boiling temperature, various substances 373

Bolt hole circles

chordal distance 75

Bolts and nuts

angularity and eccentricity 1541

ANSI Standard 1447

ANSI, inch dimensions

cap or acorn nuts 1456

countersunk bolts 1461-1462

flat jam nuts 1453

hex

flat nuts 1453

nuts 1452

slotted nuts 1453, 1455

thick slotted nuts 1454-1455

jam nuts 1452

ribbed neck bolts 1460

round head bolts 1458-1460

round head fin neck bolts 1459

slotted countersunk bolts 1462

square

neck bolts 1458, 1461

nuts 1445-1446, 1455

step bolts 1461

T-bolts 1633

T-nuts 1634

Unified 1445, 1452, 1455

wing nuts 1697-1701

ANSI, metric dimensions

diameters 1491

heavy hex bolts 1498

heavy hex flange screws 1495

heavy hex nuts 1512

hex jam nuts 1512

hex nuts 1508

prevailing torque hex

flange nuts 1511

nuts 1513

reduced diameter bolts 1492

slotted hex nuts 1508

thread series 1510

bolt designation 1446, 1499-1500, 1511, 1532, 1541-1542, 1550, 1564, 1586, 1597, 1600, 1608, 1624, 1700, 1703

British Standard 1582

fine thread 1606, 1860-1886

hexagon bolts, screws, and nuts 1540

hexagon slotted and castle nuts 1535

metric hexagon 1536

precision hexagon nuts 1534

British Standard

slotted and castle nuts 1534

Unified 1584

Whitworth 1533-1535, 1578, 1585, 1606

chamfering 1541

combination 1542

counterbore sizes 875

countersinking 1541

deflection 1428

designation 1542

diameter-length combinations 1501

elongation and tightening tension 1437

elongation measurements 1433

finish 1540

friction coefficient 1437

friction coefficients 1431

grade markings for steel 1441

head markings

inch 1441-1442

metric 1499, 1508, 1511

heavy hex structural 1447

heavy hex structural bolts 1498

hex structural 1446

hexagon bolts, screws, and nuts 1540

hexagon sockets 1506

identification symbols 1500

length of thread 1541

load allowable on bolts 1442

loaded joints 1429

marking 1542

materials properties 1499

metric hex bolts 1499

metric hex cap screws 1502

metric hex flange nuts 1508

metric hex lag screws 1501

metric round head bolts 1500

metric screw 1500

nominal lengths 1540

preload 1428

adjustments 1431

application methods 1433

applications 1430

loaded joints 1429

shear 1429

proof strength 1428

relaxation of preloads 1432

round head neck bolts 1459

socket head cap screws 1501, 1506

spacing for wrench clearances 1462

spline sockets 1506

square 1446

steel nuts 1542

strength grade designations 1441-1442, 1499-1500, 1508, 1511, 1541-1542

tightening 1428

torque 1428

torque prevailing types 1510

torque required to tighten 1428

Unified square 1447-1448

Unified Standard 1447-1448

washer facing 1541

working strength of bolts 1442

wrench and socket clearances 1462

wrench clearances for nuts 1463

wrench openings 1463

yield strength 1428

Bonding plastics 592

Bonding, adhesives 2494

Boring

carbide tools for 875-876

cutting time for 1052

insert holder 746-748

wood 388

Boring machine, origin 879

Boring tools

carbide carbide tipped round 877

carbide sizes 875

carbide style 875

sintered carbide 875

solid carbide 879

Boring-bar, cutters, carbide 875-876

Boron nitride

cubic (CBN) abrasive 983, 1148, 1165, 1174

cutting tool materials 983

speeds and feeds for 1003, 1009

Bottom bending 1275

Boundry film lubrication 2334

Box wrench clearances 1468

Box wrench clearances, US-Metric 1468

Brakes

band 2368

block type 2371

coefficient of friction 2369

Brass and bronze

alloys 513

cast 514-517

speeds and feeds

drilling and reaming 1042

wrought 518-526

speeds and feeds

turning 1007

strength data 512

Brass bending 1276-1277

Brass files 965

Brazing 1331-1337

blowpipe 1336

dip 1336

filler metals for 1331

fluxes for 1331

furnace 1336

heating for 1336

induction 1336

methods 1336

resistance 1336

supplying heat blowpipe 1336

supplying heat torch 1336

symbols 1336-1337

vacuum furnace 1336

work 1336

Breakaway torque 1529

Break-even analysis 144-147

Breaking load, bolts 1444

Breaking load, screws 1444

Bricks strength 394

Briggs (now ANSI) standard pipe thread 1862-1863, 1891, 1893

drills for 1942

Brinell hardness 505

aluminum alloys 533-541

heat-treated steels 424-429

Rockwell conversion tables 508-509

test 505

British Association

basic dimensions 1887

instrument makers threads 1887

standard screw threads 1886

tolerance formulas 1887

tolerances and allowances 1887

British Standard

button head screws 1600

buttress threads 1850

cap screws 1601

cheese head screw 1583

clearance holes for metric bolts and screws 1939

combined drills and countersinks 862

core drills 868-869

countersunk head screws 1578, 1582, 1585

deviations for holes 669

deviations for shafts 667

dowel pins, metric 1653-1654

drills and countersinks 866

drills, metric 866, 868-872

fasteners, mechanical properties 1540, 1600

fine threads (BSF)

basic dimensions 1860

tolerance formulas 1858

fits 665

hexagon and thin nuts 1538

hexagon bolts 1532

hexagon bolts and screws 1537

hexagon head screws 1582-1583

hexagon nuts 1535

hexagon slotted and castle nuts 1534, 1539

hexagon socket countersunk 1600

hexagon socket screws, metric 1600, 1602, 1605

button head 1604

cap 1601

set 1603, 1605

imperial wire gauge 2519

interference fits 1543

ISO metric

grade markings 1540

ISO metric

limits and fits 661-670

tapping drill sizes for 1938

threads 1806, 1824

ISO metric nuts 1538

ISO profile dimensions 1815

limits and fits 666

limits of tolerance for shafts 664

machine screw nuts 1573, 1578

machine screws 1572-1585

countersunk head 1576

material 1573

metric series 1575

slotted countersunk head 1575

machine screws and nuts 1582

machine screws, cheese head 1580

machine screws, metric series 1581

metric

and inch pipe threads 1871-1872

basic sizes, preferred 672

bolts, clearance holes 1939

bright metal washers 1547

comparison of British, French, German and Swiss 1825

dowel pins 1653-1654

drills 866-872

gauge and letter sizes 867

hexagon socket screws 1600, 1605

limits and fits 661-670

machine screws and nuts 1572

metal washers 1546

series 1573

series plain washers 1546-1548

series spring washers 1544-1546

spring washers 1545-1546

threads 1825

morse taper 869

mushroom head screw 1583

nuts 1533-1536, 1538-1539, 1572-1582

pan head screw 1583

pipe threads

jointing threads 1871

longscrew threads 1871

non pressure tight joints 1870

pressure tight joints 1871

precision metric nuts 1539

preferred metric basic sizes 672

preferred numbers 672

preferred sizes 673

recessed head screws 1582

rivets 1642-1648, 1651

RMS thread 1887

round head screw 1582

screws 1532, 1572, 1585, 1600-1606

thread dimensions 1872, 1887

thread profiles 1769, 1858

slotted head screws 1582

socket head 1601

spark plug threads 1884

spur and helical gears 2077

straight splines 2183

studs 1532, 1543

tolerance for holes and shafts 662, 664

twist drills 868-871

Unified

machine screws and nuts 1584

screws and nuts 1584

thread system

UNJ profile threads 1769

washers, plain, metric 1546-1548

Whitworth and fine machine screws 1573

Whitworth threads (BSW) 1858-1860

basic dimensions 1859-1860

formulas 1859-1860

instrument threads 1887

machine screws 1585

measuring 1897-1898, 1900, 1903

pipe threads 1870-1871

set-screws 1585, 1606

thread form 1858

tolerance formulas 1858

British thermal units, (BTU) 2599

converted into foot-pounds 2595

power and heat equivalents 2594

Broaches

chip breakers 959-960

clearance angles for teeth 959

depth of cut per tooth 958

depth of teeth 959

face angle or rake 959

land width 959

pitch of teeth 956-959

radius of tooth fillet 959

shear angle 959-960

surface 957

total length of 959

types 955-956

Broaching 955-961

cutting oils for 1116

cutting speeds for 1044

difficulties 961

pressure 957

types of machines 959-960

Broken tap, removal of 1942

Bronze bearing material 2264

Bronze bending 1276-1277

Brown & Sharpe

automatic screw machines 1101-1106

forming tool formula 775

indexing plates 1984, 2012-2013

milling machine indexing 1984, 1986, 2012-2013

taper 924, 933-934

taper reamers for sockets 840

wire gage 2519

Brush finishing, power 1405-1408

Buckling, columns 283

Buffing and polishing 1406

Buffing wheels 1409

Bulk modulus of various material 394

Burs and files, rotary 965

Bushings gear 2150

Butt joint, riveted 1635-1639

Button head screw 1600

Buttress threads 1850-1857

allowances and tolerances 1856

ANSI Standard inch type 1851

basic dimensions 1850-1851

British Standard 1850

designations 1857

diameter equivalents 1853

diameter-pitch combinations 1850-1851

dimensions 1856

formula 1857

height of thread engagement 1851

lead and flank angles 1853

pitch-diameter tolerances 1852

symbols and formulas 1851

thread form 1851

tolerances 1852, 1855-1856

wire method of measuring 1911-1912

Byte 2562

C

Cadmium

bearing alloys 2264

plating 1414

vacuum coating 1420

Cage materials, anti-friction bearings 2278

Caliper

gear tooth 2052

measurement of gear teeth 2052

vernier 674

Calorie, kilogram 2594, 2599

Cams and cam design 1105-1106, 2189-2214

accelerating forces 2206

acceleration, velocity, and displacement formulas 2191

classes of cams 2189

constant velocity with parabolic matching 2196

contact stresses 2211

cylinder cams shape 2212

displacement

constant velocity 2191

curves 2190

cycloidal 2193

diagrams 2190

harmonic 2192

parabolic 2191

synthesis of 2193

follower systems 2189

forces 2206-2207

friction forces 2207

harmonic motion 2205

layout of a cylinder cams 2212

materials 2206, 2211

compressive stress 2211

milling 2213

offset translating follower 2199

pressure angle 2198, 2207

formula 2202

harmonic motion 2203

parabolic motion 2203

uniform velocity motion 2203

profile determination 2195, 2197-2198

radius of curvature 2204

cycloidal motion 2205

parabolic motion 2205

rise for threading 1104

size determination 2198-2202

stresses, contact 2206, 2210-2211

swinging roller follower 2197, 2201

symbols 2190

torque 2208

translating roller follower 2197

Cams and tool design 1105

Cap screws 1449, 1586-1591

button head 1591

drill and counterbore sizes for 1589

finished, hexagonal 1449

flat head 1590

hexagon socket head 1600

hexagon socket type 1588-1591

hexagonal 1449

metric 1489

round head 1587

slotted fillister head 1587

slotted flat head 1586-1587

slotted head 1586

designation 1586

length of thread 1586

spline socket type 1588-1591

Capitalized cost 142

Carat 2587

Carbide blank

designations 748-749

sizes 748-749

Carbide tools 755, 761

application of cutting fluids to 1118

boring 875-876, 1045

coated 981-982

cutting 748

grinding 971-974

insert holders 736-748, 758-760

insert type 736, 740-748

materials for 761-766, 980-982

nose angle 753-754

nose radius 750, 754

rectangular shank 751

sharpening 971

side cutting edge angle 752

single point 748

sintered 748

square shank 751

standard blanks for 748

style A 751

style B 752

style C 753

style E 754

style EL 754

style ER 754

tips for boring tools 875-876

Carbides and carbonitrides 761-766

Carbon steel 396

AISI-SAE designations 400-401

chemical compositions 402, 2146

classification 410

cold drawn 422-423

electrodes 1362

forged and rolled 2146

free cutting 412

gears 2146

heat treatments 490

mechanical properties 424-429

milling 1015-1018

numbering system 398, 400

structure of 465

tool steel as a cutting tool material 980

turning 997-1000

unified numbering system 398, 400

Carbonaceous mixtures 484

Carbon-graphite bearings 2267

Carbonitrides and carbides 761-766

Carbonitriding 468

Carburizing 461, 467, 484

gas 486

liquid 486

solid materials 484

steels for 413

temperatures

alloy steel 491

carbon steel 490

vacuum 486

Cartesian coordinate system 1224

Cartesian coordinates 42

Case hardening 461, 484

steel 484

Cash flow conversion 137-140

annuity to future value 139

annuity to gradient value 139

annuity to present value 139

diagrams 138

future value to annuity 139

future value to gradient 139

future value to present value 139

present value to annuity 139

present value to future value 139

present value to gradient 139

Casing thread 1891

Cast copper alloys 513-517

Cast iron

bearings 2265

coefficient of expansion 378

cutting, flame 1368

density 378

ductile 1310

malleable 1310

melting points 378

nodular 1310

specific heat 378

speeds and feeds for

drilling, reaming, and threading 1038-1039

milling 1022-1023

turning 1003-1004

strength 432

thermal conductivity 378

Cast metals, power constant 1054

Cast roller chains 2451

Cast steel 1311

austenitic manganese 1313

chemical composition 1313, 2147

corrosion resistant alloy 1313

elongation 1313

mechanical properties 1312

strength 432, 1312

tensile strength 1313

yield point 1313

Casting processes

accuracy 1325

aluminum alloys 1320

ductile iron 1310

extrusion 1326

gravity die casting 1315

gray iron 1315

green-sand molding 1314-1315

investment casting 1323, 1325

investment removal 1325

low pressure casting 1316

permanent mold 1315

shell-molding 1315

squeeze casting 1316

V-process 1315

weights and sizes 1325

Castings

alloy steel 1311

blast cleaning 1317

brass and bronze 512

bronze and brass for gears 2148

centrifugal 195

cleaning 1317

cleaning methods 1317

die design 1320

dimensions 1324

ductile (nodular) iron 1310

finishing operations 1316

heat treatment 1316-1317

investment 1323

malleable iron 432, 1310

metal 1314

milling cutters 1326

nodular cast iron 1310

removal of gates and risers 1316

shrinkage of 1318

steel, for gears 2095, 2147

surface texture of 720

tolerances 1324

weight 1317, 1319

Castle and slotted nuts 1446, 1533, 1535

Cathode 1299

Cement, strength of 394

Cementation 461

Cemented carbide tools 761-766

coated 766

drilling with 1031-1034

grinding 971-974

materials for 980-982

milling with 1014-1023

turning with 997-1010

Cementite 465

Cements, pipe joints 2498

Center

distance, gear set 2042, 2044, 2112

drills reamers and machine countersinks 827

of oscillation 232

of percussion 232

Center distance, gearing 2031

Center of gravity 222-228, 232

any four-sided figure 223

circle sector 224

circular arc 223

cone 226

cone, frustum 226

cylinder 225

cylinder, portion of 225

ellipse segment 224

ellipsoid, segment of 227

fillet 224

of two bodies 226

parabola, area of 225

paraboloid 227

part of circle ring 224

perimeter or area of parallelogram 222

pyramid 226

pyramid, frustum 226

spandrel 224

sphere, hollow 227

spherical

sector 227

segment 227

surface 224

spheroid, segment of 227

trapezoid 223

triangle 222

wedge 227

Centering tools, length of point 865

Centerless grinding 1190-1192

troubles 1191-1192

Centers, for arbors and reamers 827

Centimeter-gram-second system of measurement 2560

Centimeter-inch conversion tables 2569

Centipoise (cP) 2338

Centipoises 2602

Centistokes 2602

Centistokes (cSt) 2338

Centralizing Acme threads 1833, 1844

alternative series 1844, 1847

basic dimensions 1835

designation 1838

diameter allowance 1837

diameter tolerance 1838

formulas for determining diameters 1835, 1837

limiting dimensions 1835-1836

major and minor diameter allowances and tolerances 1837

pitch diameter allowances 1837

pitch diameter tolerance 1838

single start screw thread 1837

thread data 1836

thread form 1835

Centrifugal

casting 195

clutches 2363

force 194-197

calculation 195

Ceramic

coefficient of expansion 389, 768

compressive properties 389

compressive strength 389, 768

cutting tool materials 766-769, 982

density 389, 768

dielectric strength 389

fracture toughness 768

hardness 389, 768

mechanical properties 389

modulus of elasticity 768

modulus of rigidity 768

poission's ratio 768

properties 768

tensile strength 389

thermal conductivity 389, 768

whisker reinforced 769

Cermets 761

Cgs system of measurement 2560

Chain

cast roller 2451

detachable 2451

pintle 2451

saw files 965

Chamfering insert holder 746-748

Chamfers and corner clearance, gearing 2165

Change gears

compound 1947, 2010

finding accurate ratios 1951

finding ratios 1951

helical gear hobbing 2113

helical milling 1966

idler gears 2010

lathe 1947

leads and angles for helical milling 1981-1982

odd inch pitch threads 1950

output, quick change 1949

relieving helical-fluted hobs 1951-1952

thread cutting, lathe 1947

fractional ratios 1948

fractional threads 1947

metric pitches 1947-1948

modifying the gearbox output 1948

threads per inch with given combination 1947-1948

trains, for fractional ratios 1948

Channels

aluminum 2517

moment of inertia 2513, 2517

radius of gyration 2513, 2517

section modulus 2513, 2517

steel 2513

structural 2513, 2517

weight per foot 2513, 2517

Checking

Acme threads by three-wire method 1907

enlarged spur pinion 2144

gear size 2126-2144

gears 2135

measurements over pins or wires 2144

radius of arc 700

rake angles

indicator drop method 817-818

indicator drops on milling cutter face 818

relief angles

indicator drop method 817

indicator drops on end teeth 817

indicator drops on side teeth 817

screw thread dimensions 1902

shaft conditions 701

spur gear by wires 2127-2134

spur gear size 2127-2134

Whitworth threads 1902

Cheese head screws 1578, 1583

Chemical composition 1523

Chemical compositions

alloy steels 404-405, 1313

aluminum alloys 536-537

carbon steels 402, 1313

cast steels 2147

copper 527

copper alloys 514-526

forged and rolled alloy steels 2147

forged and rolled carbon steels 2146

HSLA steels 421

magnesium alloys 545

molybdenum 499

nickel alloys 547-548

shock-resisting tool steels 455

stainless steels 406-407

tool steels 439

treatment of metals 1410

vapor deposition (CVD) 764

Chemical elements 372

atomic number 372

atomic weight 372

melting temperature 372

symbol 372

Chemical surface treatment of metals 1411-1413

Chilled cast iron 1309

Chip flow angle 1070

Chip thickness 1063, 1128

Chipbreakers 739

angular shoulder type 739

grinding 973-974

groove type 739

light cuts 740

parallel shoulder type 739

Chord

length for given number of divisions 707

length given angle and radius 72, 76, 78

Chordal addendum 2031, 2050

milled bevel gear teeth 2096

milled, full-depth gear teeth 2048-2049

Chordal distance of bolt circle 75, 707

Chordal thickness 2031

gear teeth 2047, 2049, 2094

milled bevel gear teeth 2096

milled, full-depth gear teeth 2048-2049

Chrome 1414

Chromium

gearing material 2147

plating 1372

tool steels 449

Chucking reamers 821

expansion 830

rose 822

Chucks

drill, tapers and threads for 937

hexagonal, for portable tools 951

spindle, for portable tool grinders 948

Cincinnati milling machines, indexing movements 2018-2021

Circles 45

center 45

chords for dividing circumference of 707

enclosed within a circle 87-90

enclosed within a rectangle 92

general equation 45

geometry of 59

lengths of chords for dividing 707

moment of inertia 238

packing

in circles 87-90

in circles and rectangles 87-92

in rectangles 92

radius 45

radius of gyration 238

section modulus 238

segments 72, 76-78

squares of equivalent areas 79

Circular

arc center of gravity 223

disk, radius of gyration 230

gear teeth 2040

measure 2566

mil gage for wires 2579

pitch 2031, 2158

given center distance and ratio 2046

pitch gears, diameters of 2053

pitch in gears 2053

ring

moment of inertia 239

radius of gyration 239

section modulus 239

sector area 45, 73

saws, arbors for 948

sector segment 707

sector, area 45, 72

segment

area 72, 76

formulas 76

table of dimensions 77-78

thickness 2031

milled bevel gear teeth 2096

outside diameter

has been enlarged 2047

has been reduced 2047

tools 782

Circumference

chords for dividing 707

Clad aluminum alloys 542

Cladding with lasers 1403

Classical belts and pulleys

V-belts 2409-2416

datum length 2410

groove dimension 2411

horsepower rating 2413

length correction 2415

sheave dimension 2410-2411

Classification of carbon steels 410

Clavarino's equation 292

Clearance 2031

angles

boring tools 875-876

milling cutters 813

reamers, tooth rest position 823

box wrenches 1468

drill sizes, machine screw 1935

for wrench 1462

holes 627, 634, 637, 652

hex-head bolt and nut 875

inch machine screws 1935

metric

bolts and screws 1939

machine screws 1571

square neck bolts 1518

tapping screws 1627

Clearance holes 1516

inch fasteners 1516

metric fasteners 1517

substitute drills for 1517

Cleveland forming tool formula 775

Clevis pins 1653

Clutches 2359-2367

angle of cone 2362

angle of dividing head for milling 2366-2367

centrifugal and free-wheeling 2363

cone 2361-2362

cutting teeth 2365-2366

cutting with angular cutters 2365, 2367

disk 2359

double angle cutter 2367

friction 2359, 2361

friction coefficients 2361

magnetic 2362-2363

positive 2364-2365

power capacity of 2360

saw tooth 2366

single angle cutter 2366

slipping 2363

wrapped spring 2363

CNC 1224-1259

back boring 1243

canned cycles 1240

Cartesian coordinate system 1224

computer based programming 1227

contouring 1245

coordinate geometry 1224

depth of thread 1247

features 1228

fixed cycles 1240

G address 1229

G codes 1229

holes 1239

indexable threading insert 1247

lathes 1233, 1247

M codes 1232

manual data input (MDI) 1228

manual programming 1226

MDI, manual data input mode 1252

multiple repetitive cycles 1245

multi-start threads 1250

N Address 1229

O address 1229

offsets 1237

parametric programming 1251

peck depth 1241

program structure 1229

programming

ABS 1257

absolute 1232

arc radius 1235

block number N 1229

branching 1258

circular interpolation 1235

comments and messages 1229

computer 1227

cutter radius compensation 1238

cutter radius offset 1238

defining a plane 1235

equidistant toolpath 1238

F-address 1233

programming

feed rate override 1234

FIX 1256

fixed cycles 1240

FUP 1257

G00 1235

G01 1235

G02, G03 1235

G17, G18, G19 1235

G20, G21 1232

G32, G76 multi start threads 1250

G32, G76 threading 1249

G33, G34 threading 1249

G41, G42 1234, 1238

G43, G44 1238

G50 1233

G54 - G59 1237

G65 prep command 1252

G70, G76 1245

G71, G73 rules 1247

G73 1247

G73 fixed cycle 1241

G74 fixed cycle 1242

G76

one cycle 1249

two cycle 1250

G76 fixed cycle 1243

G80 fixed cycle cancellation 1244

G81 fixed cycle 1240

G82 fixed cycle 1241

G83 fixed cycle 1241

G84 fixed cycle 1242

G85 fixed cycle 1242

G86 fixed cycle 1243

G87 fixed cycle 1243

G88 fixed cycle 1244

G89 fixed cycle 1244

G90, G91 1232

G93 1234

G94,G95 1233

G96, G97 1233

G96, G97, spindle speed 1247

helical interpolation 1237

IJK vector 1235

incremental 1232

inverse time feed rate 1234

lathes 1233, 1247

linear interpolation 1235

long hand threading 1249

looping 1258

machining holes 1239

macros 1227, 1250-1259

# symbol 1252

ABS 1257

arithmetic functions 1255

basic skill requirements 1252

boolean functions 1257

branching 1258

common applications 1252-1253

programming

common features 1252

defined variables 1253

determining if active 1252

examples of 1258

functions 1255

functions and constants 1253

G65 arguments 1253

G65 prep command 1252

G65, call command 1253

logical functions 1253, 1257

looping 1258

MDI, manual data input mode 1252

miscellaneous functions 1257

rounding functions 1256

SQRT 1257

trigonometric functions 1255

variables 1253

common 1254

declarations 1254

global 1254

local 1254

system 1254

manual 1226

milling offsets 1237

modal command 1235

modal, G-codes 1229

modal, M-codes 1232

M03, M04 1232

M98, call subprogram 1250

M99, end subprogram 1250

parametric 1251

preparatory commands, G 1229

preset method 1238

program number O 1229

radius 1235

rapid motion 1235

repetitive commands 1245

ROUND 1256

S-address 1232

shop floor 1227

spindle function 1232

spindle override 1233

spindle rotation 1232

SQRT 1257

subroutines 1250

T-address 1234

techniques 1250

thread cutting 1247

threading commands 1249

tool function 1234

tool length offset 1238

tool nose radius compensation 1234

lathes 1238

touch-off method 1238

units of measurement 1232

work offset 1237

rectangular coordinate system 1224

Shop floor programming 1227

shop floor programming 1227

single point threading 1247

spindle speed

cutting, peripheral, or surface 1233

subprograms 1250

subprograms, (subroutines) 1250

thread calcualtions 1247

thread cutting 1247-1250

thread milling 1237

threading

commands 1249

infeed 1248

angular method 1248

compound 1248-1249

flank 1248-1249

modified angular method 1248

plunge method 1248

radial 1248

operations 1249

threading commands 1249

turning and boring 1245

Cobalt alloys 982

Cobaltchrom steel 496

elongation 392

hardness 392

tensile strength 392

yield strength 392

Coefficient of

expansion

aluminum 377

cast iron 378

ceramics 389

common materials 376

copper alloys 377

ductile iron 378

plastics 390

thermoplastics 376

titanium alloys 378

various substances 376

friction 172-173, 2372

rolling resistance 174

steel on various materials 173

various materials on metal 2361

heat radiation 376

heat transmission 376

Cofactors of a matrix 131

Coining 1275

Cold-form tapping 1940-1942

Cold-work

tool steels

air hardening 453

chemical composition 453

heat treatment 453

oil hardening 452

Collets 945-947

Colloidal suspension 1299

Coloring metals 1411-1413

Columns 282-288

American Institute of Steel Construction 286, 288

American Railway Engineering Association formulas 282

eccentrically loaded 283

Euler formula 283-286

J. B. Johnson formula 285-286

Rankine or Gordon formulas 282, 284

steel pipe, allowable concentric loads 287-288

Combination 18

drill and tap 1944

involute spline types 2168

shank, helix single end mills 795

Combined drills and countersinks 861

Combined stress 212-215

normal stresses at right angles 212

Common fractions 8

Compensation, insert radius, NC 758-760

Complex conjugate 17

Complex or imaginary numbers 17

Composite, checking of gears 2074

Compound

angles 118-120

indexing 1985-1991

Compression

in columns 282-288

springs 305-325

Compressive properties

ceramics 389

definitions 202

strength

ceramics 389

common non-metals 394

iron and steel 432

magnesium alloys 546

wood 386

strength, wood 386

Concave arbor-type milling cutters 803

Concrete strength 394

Conductance, thermal 2598

Conductivity

electrical, of metals 1303

electrical, of plastics 571

Cone

center of gravity 226

clutches 2361-2362

frustum

center of gravity 226

of volume 83

polar moments of inertia 249

radius of gyration 231

polar moments of inertia 249

radius of gyration 231

volume 83

Coned springs 351

Conical pendulum 180

Conjugate fractions 12, 14

Constants, fundamental 2564

Constructional steels 1158-1159

Contact

diameter 2031, 2060

diameter, gearing 2060

ratio 2031, 2061

face 2031

gearing 2061

total 2031

stress 2031

stresses, cams 2211

Contamination of lubricants 2351

Contents of tanks 67-68

Continued fractions 11-12

use of as conjugates 13-14

Convergents 11-14

Conversion

acceleration 2602

acres to hectares 2579

bending moments 2593

Celsius to Fahrenheit temperatures 2599

centimeter to inch 2569

coordinate systems 42-44

cutting speed formulas 986

density units 2588

energy units 2597

fahrenheit and celsius temperatures 2599

flow units 2586

force units 2592

fractional inch to millimeter 3

millimeter to fractional inch 3

moment and torque units 2593

moment of inertia units 2603

newton-meters into pound-inches 2593

numbers to powers-of-ten notation 15

pound-inches into newton-meters 2593

power units 2597

pressure units 2592

section modulus units 2603

specific gravity 382

tables

angular measure 102, 104

cutting speed and diameter to rpm 987, 1181

cutting speed formulas 1944

decimal multiples of SI units 2562

foot-pounds into Btu 2595

fractional inch to millimeter 2568

hardness 508-509

horsepower into kilowatts 2595

millimeter to fractional inch 2568

pounds-force into newtons 2593

power and heat 2594

radians into degrees 102, 104

thermal conductance 2598

torque units 2593

U.S.gallons into liters 2582

UK gallons into liters 2582

velocity units 2602

viscosity 2602

work units 2597

Convex arbor-type milling cutters 803

Coolants for

lapping 1208

machining

aluminum 1123

magnesium 1124-1125

tool sharpening 973-974

zinc alloys 1125

tapping 1944

Coordinate system 42-44

converting to another 43

Copolymers 552

Copper

coloring 1411

lead bearings 2262-2265

passivation 1411

plating 1415

wire 2520

Copper and copper-base alloys

classification 513

coefficient of expansion 377

composition 514-526

copper-silicon alloys 527

copper-zinc-tin alloys 527

strength 394

density 377

die casting 1321

elongation 391, 514-526

hardness 391

machinability 514-526

melting points 377

passivation 1411, 1413

powdered metal alloys 393

specific heat 377

speeds, for drilling and reaming 1042

for turning and milling 1007

tensile strength 391, 514-526

thermal conductivity 377

UNS number 513-526

yield strength 391, 514-526

Copper- and iron-base sintered bearings 2268-2269

Copper-base powdered alloys

density 393

elongation 393

hardness 393

rupture strength 393

ultimate strength 393

yield strength 393

Cordeaux thread 1892

Core drills 864

Corner-rounding milling cutters 788, 803

Corrosion-resisting alloys 415, 418, 512, 528

Cosecant 94

Cosine law of 95

Cost

cutting grinding 1085

feeds and speeds 1088

function 1078

minimum 1077, 1079, 1131

optimum 1079

regrinding 1086

tools with inserts 1086

Cotangent 94

Cotter pins, standard sizes 1652, 1663, 1666

Cotters 2396

Coulomb shear theory (plastics) 576

Counterbores

cutters and guides 874

pilot 874

solid 874

three piece 874

Counterboring 873

Countersinks 827, 879

combined with drills 860

machine 827

Countersunk head

cap screws 1586

rivets 1640, 1642, 1648

British Standard 1648

screw, British Standard 1582

screws 1550-1552, 1555-1556, 1578-1590

British Standard 1578-1585

Couples of forces 163

Couplings

connecting shafts 2356

double-cone 2357

fire-hose 1875-1877

flexible 2358

hose 1874-1875

interference fits 2357

knuckle joint 2359

safety flange 2356

shaft 303

single keys used as fixed 2170-2171

slipping 2363

universal 2358

Crane motors 2490-2491

Crater-resistant carbide tools 981

Creep 202, 205, 310

rupture 202, 567

Critical

slenderness ratio 283

speeds 198-199

formulas for 198-199

of rotating bodies and shafts 198-199

speeds of rotating shafts 303

temperatures, heat treatment 461, 470

determining 473

Critical points of

decalescance 472-474

recalescance 472-473

Croning shell mold process 1315

Cross recesses

for machine screws 1558

for self-tapping screws 1610

Cross section lining, ANSI Standard for drawings 610

Crossed helical gears 2030

Crowned involute splines 2174

Crushing strength, wood 385

Cryogenic treatment, steel 505

cSt (centistokes) 2338

Cube, volume 81

Cubes of wire diameters 348

Cubic

boron nitride (CBN) 983, 1003, 1005, 1009, 1147-1148, 1165, 1174

grinding wheels 1165, 1174

conversions 2582

equations 33

measure 2582

Cumulative fatigue damage 204

Cupola malleable iron 1310

Curve, normal distribution 1215-1218

Curved beams 276

stress correction factor 276

Curved tooth files 964

Cutoff or roughness sampling length 719

Cut-off tools, circular dimensions 783

Cutter

bevel gear, formed types 2090-2091

box-tool 1102

compensation, NC 758-760

helical gear, formed type 2109

internal gear 2075

Cutting

abrasive 952-954

bevel gear teeth 2085

blades 771

clutch teeth 2365

costs grinding 1085

electric arc 1367-1368

fluids 1113-1118

application of to carbides 1118

aqueous solutions 1114

broaching 1116

carbides 1118

chlorinated oils 1114-1116

magnesium 1116, 1118

mineral oil 1116

selection 1114-1116

soluble oils and compounds 1114

sulfurized oils 1114, 1116-1117

various alloys 1114-1116

gas torch cutting 1367, 1369

metals oxidizing flame 1367

roller chain sprocket teeth 2470

time for turning, boring and facing 1052

time per piece 1084

Cutting fluids

for different materials 1115

for different operations 1115

for steel 1115

Cutting forces 1070

Cutting plane irons 771

Cutting speed

economic 1080

files and burs 966

lives 1092

optimum 1082

Cutting speeds and feeds 979-1044

automatic screw machine 1102-1103

bandsaw 1110-1112

broaching 1044

chip thickness 993-995

cutting speed calculations 1006

cutting tool materials 433-459

CVD diamond tools 983

diamond tools 982

drilling and turning titanium and titanium alloys 1008

drilling, reaming, and threading

copper alloys 1042

ferrous cast metals 1038-1039

glass 1035

light metals 1040

plain carbon and alloy steels 1031-1034

stainless steels 1037

tool steels 1036

equivalent

chip thickness (ECT) 993-995

rpm for given cutting speed 987-991

rpm for given drill sizes and speed 987

formulas for 986, 1006

honing 1203-1205

metal cutting saws 1052

milling 1010-1023

feeds for high-speed steel cutters 1024

ferrous cast metals 1022-1023

plain carbon and alloy steels 1015-1018

stainless steels 1020-1021

titanium and titanium alloys 1008

planing 1052

reamers 1041

rpm for different speeds and diameters 988-991

shaping 1052

tapping 1042-1044, 1994-2008

thread chasing 1042-1044

tool

inserts 758-760

life 983-984

adjusting 1005-1006, 1010, 1013, 1029

steels 1001, 1019-1020, 1036

turning

copper alloys 1007

ferrous cast metals 1003-1004

light metals 1008

stainless steels 1002

superalloys 1009

titanium and titanium alloys 1008

tool steels 1001

unusual materials 1052

twist drills 1041

work materials 979

Cutting tool grade 1029

Cutting tools 733-748

angles 733-748, 758-760

angular

milling 790, 796, 809, 812, 822

application codes, ISO 767

boring-bar 875-876

carbide grade selection 761-771, 981-982

carbon tool steels 980

carbonitrides (cermets) 761-766, 982

cast nonferrous alloy 982

cemented carbides 761-766, 980-982

ceramics 766-768, 982

checking relief and rake angles 814, 818

chipbreaker 736

chucking reamers 822

clearance angles 814, 819

coated carbides 981

coatings 764, 981

crater-resistant carbides 981

cubic boron nitride (CBN) 983, 1148, 1165, 1174

CVD diamond 983

diamond 769, 982

polycrystalline 769, 982

fluting, for reamers 821-822

grades 981-982

grinding 811-819

checking rake and relief angle 817

high-speed steel 980

indexable insert holder 735

indexable inserts 735, 758-760

machining data 770

materials 755, 761, 979-983

carbide ceramics 768

metals

compositions and properties 762

hardness 762

rupture strength 762

structures 762

tungsten carbide 762

oxide ceramics 768

silicon nitride base 769

superhard 769

milling 784-819

hand of flute helix 787

side 787

staggered tooth 787

point configuration 742

radial relief, eccentric type 814

rake angles 814

rose chucking reamers 822

sharpening 968-969

single-point 733-748

specifications, ISO 766

spline 812

titanium carbides 766, 981

tool bit 735

tooth rest positions 819

trouble-shooting checklist 984

T-slot cutters 788

tungsten carbide 755, 761, 981

combined with other elements 764

wheels for sharpening milling cutters 811-813

Woodruff keyseat cutters 808

Cutting, surface, peripheral speed 1233

Cyanide hardening (cyaniding) 462, 468, 485

Cycloid 2031

area 72

curves, area enclosed by 67

Cylinder

center of gravity 225

collapsing pressure 294-295

hollow

polar moment of inertia 247

radius of gyration 231

volume 83

plates and shells 289-295

polar moment of inertia 247

portion of volume 82-83

portion of, center of gravity 225

radius of gyration 230

strength to resist internal pressure 291-295

volume 82

working pressure vs. radius ratio 292-293

Cylindrical

coordinates 44

tank, contents 67-68

to rectangular coordinates 44

Cylindrical grinding 1182-1190

automation in 1185-1186

basic process data 1185

high speed 1185-1186

machines 1182

operating data 1184

selection of grinding wheels 1150, 1164-1165, 1174, 1183-1184

traverse and plunge grinding 1182

troubles 1186-1189

workholding 1183

Cylindrical roller bearings, symbols 2273

D

Damascus steel 399

Dardelet thread 1892

Daylight savings time 2604

Decalescence point in steel hardening 472-474

Decimal

fractions 10

inch into fraction inch 3, 2568

multiples and submultiples of SI units 2562

Dedendum 2031

Deep drawing

sheet metal 1282

wrinkling 1282

Definitions

gear terms 2030-2033, 2078-2080

spline terms 2158-2160, 2173

surface texture 711

surfaces of solid materials 709

Deflection

beams 257-268, 274-278

calculation 211

flat plates 289-291

shaft, linear 299

shaft, torsional 298-299

springs

compression and extension 322-325

torsion 340-343

Degrees, expressed in radians 102, 104

Density

aluminum 377

cast iron 378

ceramics 389

copper alloys 377

copper-base powdered alloys 393

ideal 2564

iron-base powdered alloys 393

nickel alloys 378

plastics 390

plastics materials 390

powdered metals 393

stainless steels 378

titanium alloys 378

tungsten-base powdered alloys 393

units conversion 2588

wood 387

Department of Commerce 294

Deposition rates (welding) 1344

Depreciation 140-141

double declining balance method 140

property class and factors 141

statutory depreciation system 140

straight line method 140

sum of the years digit method 140

Depth of cut 983-984

Depth of engagement 2158

Derivatives of functions 34

Detachable chains 2451

Diameter factor 1133

Diameter of circle enclosing smaller circles 87-90

Diameters for finished shafting 300

Diametral pitch

definition 2031

equivalent

circular pitch and tooth proportions 2039-2040

metric modules and circular pitch 2125

knurls, (ANSI) Standard 1210-1214

system 2035

Diamond

built up edge 771

concentration 971-972

cratering 771

dust for lapping 1207

grinding wheels 1160-1177

laps and lapping 1207

tool materials 769, 982-983

truing 1166-1170

wheels 971-973, 1171-1177

composition 1174

designation symbols 1171-1174

diamond concentration 971-973

feeds and speeds 1177

grades, grit sizes 971-972

modifications 1174

operating guidelines for 1177

operations and handling 1177

selection of 1176

shapes of standard 1171-1174

speeds and feeds 1177

terminology 1171

thread grinding 1958

work speeds 1177

Di-Basic Acid Esters 2343

Die casting

alloys 1320-1323

bearing metals 1322

design 1319-1320

dies machines 1322

files 965

injection molding 1323

machining zinc alloy 1125

porosity 1319-1320

skin effect 1320

Die opening profile 1271

Dielectric strength

ceramics 389

plastics 390

Diemaker's reamers 810

Dies and taps

combination drill and tap 1944

maximum pitches 1965

tap drill size 920, 1934

Acme threads 920

formula 1935

metric 1938

pipe 1943

Unified 1926-1933

Dies, sheet metal

bending allowances 1285

blank diameters for drawing 1284

diameter reductions in drawing 1286

Dies, steel rule 1294-1297

Dies, threading, maximum pitches 1965

Differential

indexing 2009

pulley 178

Dimensioning and tolerancing, geometric 612

Dimensions and tolerancing 2376

Dip brazing 1336

Disc spring 351-365

contact surfaces 352, 355

forces and stresses 355

group classes 351

materials 352

nomenclature 351

stacking 353

Disk

circular, radius of gyration 230

clutches 2359

method of measuring tapers 695

springs 345

Displacement in ball and roller bearings, allowance for axial 2287

Distance across bolt circle 699

Distance between two points 39

Distribution curve, normal 1215

Dividing

fractions and mixed numbers 9

head, angular position 809-812

numbers written in powers-of-ten notation 16

Dolly bars for riveting 1640

Double angle milling cutters 790

Double V-belts

(see Belts and pulleys: double V-belts )

Double-cone clamping couplings 2357

Dovetail slides, measuring 695

Dowel pins 1652-1658

designation 1656-1657

ductility 1656

hardened ground machine 1655-1656

hardened ground production 1656-1657

lengths and sizes 1656

metric 1652-1654

shear strength 1656-1657

unhardened ground 1657-1658

Drafting practices, ANSI Standard 608

Draw-in bolt ends 941

Drawing 1267

ANSI Standard

line conventions 608-609

surface texture symbols 717-718

welding 1391

applying surface texture symbols 718

bisect angle 61

circle around square 63

circle around triangle 62

circular arc 62

cylinders 1284

data for gear blanks 2065

data for gears 2068

data for involute splines 2168

data for spur and helical gear 2068

data, splines 2170

divide line into equal parts 60

drafting practices 608

ellipse 50, 63

equilateral triangle 61

helix 64

hexagon around circle 63

hyperbola 64

involute 64

ISO 1302 723

metric dimensions on 720

parabola 64

parallel lines 61

perpendicular lines 60

rectangular parts 1287

scales of metric drawings 721

sheet metal 1282

sheet sizes 608

specifying spur and helical gear data on 2066

square around circle 63

symbols

ANSI Standard section lining 610

geometric 611

ISO 611

lines 609

materials 610

tangent to circle 62

tempering, steel 479

triangle around circle 62

45-degree angle 61

60-degree angle 61

Drawing dies

blank diameters 1284

Drawing, sheet metal 1282

Dressing grinding wheels 1166-1170

Drilling

accuracy of drilled holes 872

automatic screw machine feeds and speeds 1102

cutting speeds for 1101

ferrous cast metals 1038-1039

light metals 1040

superalloys 1009

titanium and titanium alloys 1008

tool steels 1036

difficulties 1035

estimating thrust, torque, and power 1060-1062

feed factors 1061

holes in glass 1035

holes, accuracy of 872

horsepower and thrust for 1060-1062

machine, shaftless motor type 2488

spade 1045-1049

Drills

accuracy of drilled holes 872

and countersink plain types 861

and countersinks, bell types 861

angle of cutting point 968-970

ANSI Standards 842

chucks, tapers 937

cobalt high-speed steel 873

combined drills and countersinks 860-862

core, taper shank 862

counterbores 842

cutting speeds and equivalent rpm 987

definitions of terms 842

diameter factors, thurst 1061

diameter factors, torque 1061

diameters of tap 1926-1933

driver, collet type 866

driver, split sleeve 866

drivers 866

for taper pin reamers 1659, 1662

grinding 968-971

jobbers length 844-850

length of point 865

letter sizes and gauge 867

metric, British Standard 862-872

nomenclature 842

screw machine drills 844-855

sharpening 969-971

sizes for tapping 1934

for Acme threads 920

sizes for tapping Acme threads 920

spade 1045-1049

specifications 1660

steels for 872-873

straight shank 842

straight-shank drill sizes

core drills 864

letter 848-849

metric 844-854

number 844-848

straight-shank, taper-length, drill sizes

fractional 845-854

letter 848-849

metric 845-854

number 845-848

screw machine length 855

tangs for 854

tap and clearance hole sizes 1935

taper shank 842

taper-shank core drills 861-864

taper-shank drill sizes

fractional inch 856-861

metric 856-861

terms 842-843

twist 842-865

twisted

jobber series 870

parallel series 871

types 842-843

Drives

nose key 929-930

screws 1607, 1622

square, for portable tools 949

studs 1666

taper 928-929

Drunken thread 1892

Dry measure 2583

Dryseal pipe threads 1867-1870

assembly limitations 1870

designations 1869-1870

diameter pitch combinations 1870

fine taper 1870

limitation of assembly 1867

limits on crest and root 1867

pressure tight joints 1867

taps for 916

types 1867

DST 2604

Ductile

cast iron 1310

iron 432, 1310

Duranickel, machining 1125

Durometer tests 509

Dynamic

stresses 280

Dynamic factor 2079

Dynamic stresses 280

Dynamic viscosity 2338

Dynamometers 2369

Dyne 2338, 2560

E

Eccentricity 2166

Echols thread 1892

Economic impact of lubrication 2336

Economic tool-life 1080

ECT (equivalent chip thickness) 993-995

EDG (electrical discharge grinding) 1299

EDM 1298

capacitor 1299

craters 1299

dielectric

filter 1299

fluid 1299

strength 1299

discharge channel 1299

dither 1299

duty cycle 1299, 1302

electrical controls 1303

electrode

growth 1299

wear 1299

electrode materials 1304

electrode uses 1305

electro-forming 1299

electronic controls 1301

Farad 1299

flushing 1301

gap current 1299

gap voltage 1299

heat-affected zone 1302

ion 1299

ionization 1299

low-wear 1299

machine settings 1302

materials 1304

characteristics 1304

materials

elctrode 1304

metal removal rates 1303

negative electrode 1299

no-wear 1299

overcut 1300

plasma 1300

plunge (sinker) method

electrode materials 1303

machine settings 1301

making electrodes 1306

metal removal rates 1303

positive electrode 1300

power parameters 1300

process 1300

quench 1300

recast layer 1300, 1303

secondary discharge 1300

spark frequency 1302

spark in and out 1300

square wave 1300

stroke 1300

UV axis 1300

white layer 1300

wire 1308

drilling holes 1308

EDM 1300

guide 1300

speed 1300

wire electrode 1308

wire method 1298

workpiece materials 1303

Effective

dimensions, splines 2158, 2166

length of bolt 1432

Efficiency 2032

influence of friction on 172

machine tool 1056-1060

of lubrication filters 2355

riveted joints 1636-1640

Elastic

limit 201

limit, plastics 561

modulus 201

in shear (torsion) 201

spring materials 345-347

various materials 201

properties of material 394

region 201, 1436-1437

tightening fasteners in 1430-1435

Electric

arc, cutting metals 1367-1368

fixture threads 1886

motor keys and keyseats 2390

socket and lamp base threads 1885

Electrical fixture threads 1885

lamp base 1885

socket shell threads 1885

Electrical network 134

Electrical relationships 2603

Electrode

diameter, sheet metal 1356

making 1306

machining graphite 1306

material 1304

brass 1305

copper 1305

copper-tungsten 1305

graphite 1305

steel 1305

zinc 1305

material selection 1306

uses on various materials 1305

wear 1306

Electrodes (welding)

characteristics of standard types 1357

AWS E60XX 1354

current to use with 1343, 1362

deposition rates 1340, 1344-1346

diameter to use 1339, 1348, 1356

selecting GTAW tungsten type 1360-1363

wire, feed rates 1343

Electropolishing 1417

Elements, table of chemical 372

Elevation reading displacements 1218

Ellipse 47, 50

area 74

drawing 50, 63

eccentricity 47

foci 47

general equation 47

major axis 47

methods of drawing 63

minor axis 47

moment of inertia 239

radius of gyration 239

section modulus 239

segment, center of gravity 224

Ellipsoid

polar moment of inertia 248

radius of gyration 232

volume 84

Elliptic gears

Gears and gearing elliptic 2115

Elongation

alloy steel 1313

aluminum 391

aluminum alloys 533-541

carbon and alloy steels 424-429

carbon steel 1313

carbon steel rounds, squares, and hexagons 422-423

cobalt alloys 392

copper alloys 391, 514-526

copper-base powdered alloys 393

copper-beryllium alloys 528

copper-silicon alloys 527

high-strength, low-alloy steels 421

iron-base powdered alloys 393

magnesium alloys 546

measurement of bolts 1433

nickel alloys 392, 547-548

plastics 390

powdered metals 393

stainless steel 392, 430-431

steels 391, 1312

titanium alloys 549

tungsten-base powdered alloys 393

Emery

grades 1410

grain numbers for polishing 1410

End mills

angles for milling teeth in 809

ANSI Standard 792-802

combination shanks for 794

high speed steel 795

plain and ball end 798

terminology of 791

with combination shank 795

with straight shanks 796-797

with taper shanks 797

with weldon shanks 792, 794-795, 798

Endurance limit 202, 2078-2079

for spring materials 315

Energy 188-189, 1299

and momentum 186

kinetic 188-190

potential 189

units conversion 2597

Engagement, length of thread 1443

Engine lathe, change gears 1947

Engineering economics 135-147

Enlarged pinions

center-distance system for 2059

in helical gearing 2109-2112

in spur gearing 2051, 2059

Epicyclic gearing 2116-2119

bevel gear type 2117-2119

ratios 2117-2119

Epicycloidal curves, areas 67

Equations

cubic 33

line 40

quadratic 31

simultaneous 132

solution of

first degree with one unknown 31

first degree with two unknowns 31

numerical with one unknown 33

quadratic with one unknown 31

using Newton-Raphson method 33

Equilateral triangle 94

Equivalent chip thickness (ECT) 993-995

Equivalent pitch ratio 2032

Equivalent uniform annual cost 143-144

Erg 2560

Etching and etching fluids 1410-1411

Euler's formulas for columns 283-284

Evaluating alternatives 141-144

benefit cost ratio 144

capitalized cost 142

equivalent uniform annual cost 143

net present value 141

payback period 144

rate of return 144

Evaluation length 712

Evaporation, latent heat of 373

Everdur copper-silicon alloy 527

Exbi 2562

Expansion

chucking reamers 830

fits 630

hand reamers 832

Exponent 14

External spline 2159, 2168

External spur gear 2030

Extrusion

applications 1327

for tubes 1327

of metals 1326

process 1326

cold 1326

hot 1326

F

Fabric, bonding 2496

Facing cutting time for 1052

Facing insert holder 746-748

Factorial 18, 109

Factors

of numbers 19-28

prime number 19-28

Factors of safety 205

machine columns 285

shafts 297, 302

tubes subject to external pressure 295

F-address, CNC programming 1233

Failure

fatigue, modes of 204

fatigue, springs 315

of riveted joints 1636

of springs 349

Fasteners

compressible washers

designation 1486

dimensional characteristics 1486

dimensions 1486-1487

finish 1486

lot number 1486

materials 1486

performance 1486

symbols 1486

workmanship 1486

hardened steel beveled washers 1484

designation 1484

dimensional characteristics 1485

hardened steel beveled washers

dimensional conformance 1485

dimensions 1484

finish 1484

materials 1484

mechanical properties 1484

slope 1485

symbols 1485

taper 1485

workmanship 1484

hardened steel flat washers

designation 1484

dimensional characteristics 1484

finish 1484

materials 1484

symbols 1484

tolerances 1483

workmanship 1484

hardened steel washers 1483

circular clipped washers 1483

flat washers 1483

heavy hex nuts 1480

corner fill 1481

countersink 1481

designation 1482

dimensional characteristics 1482

dimensional conformance 1482

grade symbols 1482

materials 1482

nut thickness 1482

overtapping 1482

proof load 1481

source symbols 1482

thickness 1481

thread gaging 1482

threads 1482

tops and bearing surfaces of nuts 1481

true position of tapped hole 1481

width across flats 1480-1482

workmanship 1482

heavy hex structural bolts 1477

plastics 596

structural bolts

bearing surface 1479

body diameter 1477-1479

bolt length 1479

designation 1477

dimensional characteristics 1480

finish 1477

grade symbols 1477

head height 1478

head taper 1479

height 1477

identification symbols 1480

length 1477

material 1480

materials 1477

thread length 1478-1479

threads 1477

true position of head 1479

structural bolts

width across corners 1478

workmanship 1477

structural steel 1477

Fasteners detecting counterfeit 1442

Fatigue

combined with creep 205

contact 205

corrosion 205

cumulative damage 204

failure, modes of 204

influence of stress on 203-205

life factor involute splines 2173

low/high cycle 204

properties 202

S-N diagrams 202, 204

springs 315

surface 205

thermal 204

FCAW (flux-cored arc welding) 1347

Federal specification

gage blocks, inch and metric sizes 706

Feed

rates

centering tools 1102

for drilling 1102

for milling 1010

for turning 997-1010

hollow mills 1102

number of teeth 1098

Feeds and speeds 979-1044, 1049, 1101-1102, 1110-1113

grinding 1128

total costs 1088

Feet

and inches into inches 2566

into meters 2578

Feet per minute into rpm 986-991, 1944

Fellows stub tooth gears 2042

Ferrite 465

Ferrous

cast metals, speeds

for drilling, reaming, and threading 1038-1039

for milling 1022-1023

for turning 1003-1004

Fiber, vulcanized, strength of 394

Fibers 552

Files 1405

chain saw 965

characteristics 963

classes 963

American pattern 963

curved tooth 963

machinist's 963

mill or saw 963

rasp 963

Swiss pattern 963

coarseness of cut

coarseness of cut

bastard 963

coarse 963

second 963

smooth 963

cross section 963

curved tooth class 964-965

cut

double cut 963

double cut finishing 963

rasp 963

single cut 963

cutting speeds 966

definitions of terms 962

flat 964

machinist's class 964

flat 964

general purpose 964

half round 964

hand 964

knife 964

pillar 964

round 964

square 964

three square 964

warding 964

wood 964

mill or saw class 963

blunt hand saw 964

blunt mill 964

blunt triangular 964

cantsaw 963

crosscut 963

double ender 963

mill 963

taper saw 964

triangular saw 964

web saw 964

pillar 964

rasps 965

rifflers 965

rotary 965

round 964

shear tooth 965

special purpose 965

aluminum rasp 965

brass file 965

chain saw 965

die casting 965

foundry 965

lead float 965

long angle lathe 965

shear tooth 965

square 964

Swiss pattern class 965

blunt machine 965

die sinker 965

die sinker rifflers 965

needle 965

silversmiths rifflers 965

teeth, cut of 963

warding 964

wood 964

Filler metals for brazing 1331

Fillet

area 73

center of gravity 224

radius 2032

Fillister head machine screws 1555

Fillister head miniature screw 1563

fillister head miniature screw 1559

Film

lubricating transition 2334

thickness ratio 2333

Filter

efficiency, lubrication 2355

filtration ratio, B 2355

Filtration

lubrication 2354

lubrication efficiency 2355

Fine blanking 1273

tool dimensions 1274

Finishing, power brush 1405-1408

Fire hose connection

screw threads 1875-1877

Fire hose connection screw threads

ANSI Standard 1875

thread designation 1875

thread form 1875

Fits 634

actual 634

and limits

graphical representation 637-639

tolerances designation 648

basic shaft fits 638

bilateral hole fits 638

British Standard

limits and fits 666

minimum and maximum clearances 665

tolerance limits

holes 664

shafts 664

clearance fits 652-653, 656-657

cylindrical

allowances and tolerances for 627

ANSI Standard 633-659

British Standard 661

definitions 627

expansion 630

forced 628, 645

metric ISO, British 661-670

metric radial, ball and roller bearing shaft and housing 2287

preferred series 634

shrinkage 630, 645

transition 639, 644

drive 638

expansion 630

force 637-638, 645

allowance 629

pressure in assembling 629

hole basis

British Standard 662

figure 650

hole system 634

interference 634, 651

locational 637

clearance 637, 642

interferance 647

interference 637

transition 637, 644

metric clearance fits 652-653, 656-657

metric interference fits 654-655

metric transition fits 654-655

running 637, 640

shaft basis

British Standard 662

figure 650

shaft system 634

shrinkage 630, 637-638, 645

allowance 630-632

sliding 637, 640

transition 634, 651

Flame

cutting of metals 1367-1369

cutting torch 1368

hardening 487

spraying process 1421

Flanged housing bearings 2278

Flank of tooth 2032

Flat

belts rivets 1642

head cap screws 1586, 1590

head machine screws 1550-1552, 1582

metal products, preferred thicknesses 2523

plate

circular 291

square and rectangular 289-290

strengths 289-291

thin radius of gyration 229

stayed surfaces in boiler work, strength 289

Flat head miniature screw 1560

Flexible

belts 2398

couplings 2358

Flexural modulus, plastics 390

Floor and bench stand grinding 1199

Flow, units conversion 2586

Fluid maintenance 1121

biocide treatment 1121

personal protective clothing 1121

system service 1121

Fluidized bed furnace 461, 470

Fluting cutters, reamers 821-822

Fluxes

brazing 1331

soldering 1329

Foot-pound

equivalents 2594

into British thermal units 2595

Force 156, 200

acceleration resulting from 186-187

addition and subtraction of 160

algebraic composition and resolution of 163-171

algebraic solution

forces in same plane 164-166

forces not in same plane 168-171

and couples, work performed by 189

centrifugal 194-197

calculating 195

colinear 163

components of 160, 163

composition 160, 163

concurrent 163

components of single force 164

coplanar 163

couples of 162-163

differential pulley 178

disc springs 355

for moving body on horizontal plane 176

friction 186

graphical representation 160-164

moment of 156, 162

noncoplanar 163

normal component 186

of blow 190

of gravity 186

on inclined plane 175

parallel 161

parallelogram of 160

polygon of 161

pound 157-158

relationship to time 200

resolution of 160, 163

into rectangular components 168

resultant 160, 163

any number of concurrent forces 168

locating when components are known 171

non-intersecting forces 166-167

non-parallel, non-intersecting forces 170

parallel forces 165

parallel forces not in same plane 169

single force and couple 165

three or more concurrent forces 164

two concurrent forces 164

screw 178

sheet metal 1272

systems 160

toggle joint 179

units conversion 2592

work performed by 189

Formed cutters for internal gears 2075

Formica, machining 1126

Forming tools 772-783

arrangement of 777

circular 775

constant for determining 777

corrected diameter 777

diameters of 777-783

with top rake 777

diameter 776

dimensions 773

feeds per revolution 777, 783, 1101

formula 775

Acme machine 775

Brown and Sharpe machine 775

Cleveland machine 775

screw machine dimensions 782

speeds for 777, 783

straight 772

with rake 772

Formulas

algebraic 30

area 69-74

column

American Railway Engineering Association 282

Euler 283-286

Johnson 283

Rankine or Gordon 282

straight-line 282

contour milling 2026

critical speeds 198-199

cutting speed 986

derivative 34

dimensions of milled bevel gears 2086, 2088

dimensions of SAE standard splines 2186

dimensions of standard spur gears 2036

distance across bolt circle 699

for helical gears 2100, 2102-2106, 2108, 2111

for module system gears 2122, 2124

integral 34

internal gears 2076

linear motion, constant acceleration 182

pendulum 180

proportions of ANSI fine-pitch worms and wormgears 2097

rearrangement of 29

rotary motion, constant acceleration 184

tooth parts, coarse pitch spur gear 2036

torque capacity of involute splines 2171

transposition 29

triangle

oblique 70, 100-101

right 70, 97, 99

trigonometric 95-96

volume 81-86

work and power 193

Fractional inch to millimeter conversion 3, 2568

Fractional threads 1947

Fractions 10

conjugate 12

continued 11-12

use of 13-14

mixed numbers 9

Free

body diagram 186

cutting steels 412

wheeling clutches 2363

Freezing mixtures 377

French

metric screw threads 1825

thermal unit 2599

thread 1892

Fretting damage 2175

Friction 172-174, 186, 2333

brakes 2368-2371

clutches 2359, 2361

coefficient in gears 2079

coefficients 173, 1438, 2361, 2369-2372

bolts 1431

hexagon head bolt and nut 1437-1438

nuts 1431

rolling resistance 174

static steel on various materials 173

torque 1437-1438

effect on efficiency 172

fluid 2333

in brakes 2370

kinetic 2333

laws of 172

rolling 174

solid 2333

static 2333

wheels horsepower 2372

wheels, power transmission 2370-2371

Friction loss in bearings 2303

Fuels, equivalent 2598

Full film lubrication 2334

Functions

derivatives 34

integration 34

involute 109-113

of angles graphic illustration 104

sevolute 109

trigonometric 94-96, 105

tables of 105-108

versed cosine 109

versed sine 109

Fundamental constants 2564

Furnace brazing 1336

Furnaces, steel heat-treating 461, 469-470, 501

Fusion, latent heat of 373

G

G-address, CNC programming 1229

Gage block sets

inch sizes 706

metric sizes 707

Gage blocks, precision 706

federal specifications for 706

inch sizes 706

metric sizes 707

Gage tolerances 1917-1918

Gagemakers tolerances 660

Gages

ANSI Unified thread

classification 1912

constants for computing dimensions 1917

form 1914, 1917

formulas for limits 1919

tolerances for plain gages 1917

hypodermic needle 2520

rods 2518

sheet metal 2522-2523

sheet zinc 2522-2523

thickness and diameter sizes, galvanized sheet 2522-2523

thread form 1915

tolerances 1915

tubing 2518

usage, ANSI Standard recommended 660

wire 348, 2518, 2520

zinc 2522-2523

Gaging methods and measuring instruments 674

Gallons

cylindrical tanks 67-68

in tank at given level 67-68

into cubic inches 2582

U.S. into liters 2582, 2585

Galvanized, (welding) 1339

Gas

carburizing 486

illuminating, specific gravity 381

metal arc welding (GMAW) 1339

specific gravity 381

specific heat 374

tungsten arc welding (GTAW) 1358-1363

Gear cutters, formed

involute 2049, 2075, 2110

milling cutters for

chain sprockets 805-806

14.5 deg pressure angles 804-805

number for bevel gears 2090-2091

Gear cutting

block or multiple indexing 2022-2023

excess depth to obtain backlash 2071

formed cutter selection 2053, 2090-2091, 2109

internal gears 2075

Gearing materials

effect of alloying metals 2147

chrome-molybdenum 2148

chrome-nickel 2148

chrome-vanadium 2148

chromium 2147

manganese 2148

molybdenum 2148

nickel 2147

nickel-modybdenum 2148

vanadium 2148

forged and rolled

alloy steels 2146

carbon steels 2146

non metallic 2150

applications 2151

bore sizes 2152

diametral pitch for given power 2152

diametral pitch for given torque 2153

keyway stresses 2152

mating gear 2151

power transmitting capacity 2151

preferred pitch 2152

safe working stress 2151

tooth form 2151

sintered materials 2148

steel castings 2147

Gears and gearing 2100-2144

active face width 2030

active spline length 2158

actual safety factor 2079

actual space width 2158

actual tooth thickness 2158

AGMA Standards 2069, 2073

angular backlash 2068-2074

arc

of action 2030

of approach 2030

of recession 2030

thickness of internal gear tooth 2075

thickness of pinion tooth 2075

axial

pitch 2030

plane 2030

thickness 2031

backlash 2068-2074, 2140

angular 2074

recommended 2070

bearing spacing and shaft stiffness 2085

bevel gears 2082-2096

blanks

design of 2066

for fine pitch gears 2065

bottom land 2031

bronze and brass castings for 2148

bulk temperature thermal flash factor 2080

bushings for gears 2150

calculated safety factors 2079

calculating

dimensions of milled bevel gears 2088

replacement gear dimensions 2154

spur gear proportions 2036

case hardening steels for 2145

change gears, for lathe 1947

checking

gear sizes 2126-2144

pressures 2074

spur gear sizes 2136-2139

chordal measurement of teeth 2141-2143

circular pitch system 2035

coefficient of

friction 2079

contact ratio factor 2061, 2078-2079

crossed helical 2030

deburring tooth profile 1405

design of bevel gear blanks 2084

diametral pitch

definition 2031

preferred 2041

system 2035

differential indexing ratio 2009

drawing

data for spur and helical gears 2068

information to be given on 2077

efficiency 2032

elasticity factor 2078-2079

endurance limit 2079

enlarged pinion

fine-pitch 2055

meshing without backlash 2059

reduced dimensions to avoid interference 2051

epicyclic 2116-2119

equivalent pitch radius 2032

external spur gears 2030

dimensions for checking over wires 2127-2130

face advance 2032

Fellows stub tooth 2042

fillet radius 2032

fillet stress 2032

finishing gear milling cutters 2055

flank of tooth 2032

forged and rolled

alloy steels for gears 2146

carbon steels for gears 2146

formed cutters for bevel gears 2092

formulas

for helical gears 2100, 2102-2106, 2108, 2111

for module system gears 2122, 2124

for spur gears 2036-2037, 2040, 2042-2043

given center distance and ratio 2042, 2044

formulas

to mesh with enlarged pinion 2059

gear ratio, definition 2032

geometrical factor 2079-2080

given center distance and ratio 2044

harder pinion 2146

heat treatment to permit machining 2145

helical 2030, 2100-2115

herringbone 2115

highest point of single tooth contact (HPSTC) 2062

hypoid bevel gears 2030, 2083

increasing pinion diameter to avoid undercut or interference 2053

inspection of gears 2074

integral temperature criterion 2080

interference 2032

internal diameter 2032

internal gears 2032, 2075

spur 2030, 2075-2076

dimensions between wires 2131-2134

invention 2153

involute curve 2035

land 2032

lead 2032

length of action 2032

life factor 2078-2079

line of action 2032

load distribution 2079

lowest point of single tooth contact (LPSTC) 2032, 2060-2061

lubricant influence 2079

roughness, and speed 2078

lubrication film factor 2079

material quality 2078

materials for 2145-2151

bevel gears 2095

maximum hob tip radius 2061

measuring

gear size over wires 2126-2144

teeth 2052

methods of cutting internal gears 2075

metric module gear cutters 2053

module system 2122-2125

module, definition 2032

mountings for bevel gears 2085

nomenclature of gear teeth 2034

non-metallic 603, 2150

normal plane 2032

number of teeth 2032

to avoid undercutting 2059

outside diameter 2032

pin method of checking size 2126-2144

pinions flanges composition 2150

pitch diameter 2035

obtained with diametral pitch system 2035

pitch point 2032

plane of rotation 2032

planetary 2116

plastics gearing 603

pressure angle 2033, 2040

profile checker settings 2063

rack 2033

ratchet gearing 2120-2121

ratio, defined 2032

relative sizes of internal gear and pinion 2075

replacement gear dimensions 2154

roll angle 2033

root diameter 2033

selection of involute gear milling cutter 2053

shapers, root diameters of gears cut on 2043

size factor 2078

size, checking 2126-2144

specifications 2068

spur gear 2034-2068

external 2030

internal 2030, 2075-2076

standard normal diametral pitches 2077

steels for 2145, 2147

straight bevel 2030

surface condition factor 2079

tangent plane 2033

tangential force 2078

teeth invention 2153

terms used in gear specifications 2066

through hardening steels for 2145

tip relief 2033

tooth caliper, vernier 2052

tooth face 2033

tooth profile

deburring 1405

producing a radius 1405

tooth proportions

comparative sizes and shape of 2034

fine-pitch involute spur and helical gears 2040

for enlarging fine-pitch pinions 2057-2058

tooth stiffness constants 2079

tooth surface 2033

tooth thickness allowance for shaving 2046

tooth-to-tooth composite error 2074

total composite error 2074

total face width 2033

transverse load distribution factor 2079

transverse plane 2033

trochoid curve 2033

true involute form diameter 2033, 2062

undercut 2033

limit for hobbed involute gears 2062

Van Keuren wire diameter 2134

wear equalizing 2146

welding factor 2080

whole depth 2033

wire diameter 2134

work hardening factor 2078-2079

working depth 2033

worm gears 2030, 2096-2099

zerol bevel 2030

zone factor 2078-2079

Gears, metric thread on inch lead screw 1949

General purpose Acme threads 1826-1833

data 1828

designation 1827-1828

form 1826, 1828, 1835

formulas for diameters 1828

limiting dimensions 1827-1831, 1835

pitch diameter allowances 1828

thread form 1828, 1835

Generator shaft keys and keyseats 2390

Geneva wheel 178

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing 612

datum

feature 614

material removal required or prohibited 717

mean line 711

relation of surface roughness to tolerances 714

Geometrical

constructions 60-64

dimensioning and tolerancing 612

progression 36-38

propositions 55-59

symbols for drawings 611

symbols, comparison of ANSI and ISO 611

German standard

gear tooth 2122

screw threads, metric 1825

Gib-head keys 2388

Gibi 2562

Gleason system, Zerol bevel gears 2083

Glue, pattern 1317

Glue, plastics 592

GMAW

(gas metal arc welding) 1339

welding carbon steels 1342

welding stainless steel 1342

GO and NOT GO gages 2176

Gold, plating 1417

Goodman diagram 203-204

Gordon formula for columns 282, 284

Grade markings on bolts and nuts

ASTM and SAE 1441

inch 1441

metric 1540

Grams

into ounces, avoirdupois 2587-2588

per cubic centimeter into pounds per cubic inch 2589

Granite, strength 394

Graphical solution of force systems 160-164

Graphite materials for bearings 2267

Graphitic materials for bearings 2267

Gravitational system of measurement 157

Gravity

acceleration due to 157

center of, in various geometrical figures 222-228

die casting process 1315

force of 186

specific 381

gases 381

liquids 381-382

various substances 382

Gray cast iron 1309

Grease 2333, 2344

additves 2346

application 2348

classification 2346

consistency rating 2346

National Lubricating Grease Institute 2346

properties 2345

Greek symbols and alphabet 2556

Green sand molding 1314-1315

Green wood, weight per cubic feet 387

Grindability data 1136-1138, 1159-1160

Grindability of tool steels 1159-1163

Grinders spindles for portable 950

Grinding 1147

abrasive belt grinding 1200

abrasives 1147-1149

basic rules 1128

carbide materials, diamond wheel 1143

carbide tools 971-974

cast iron 1140

centerless 1190-1192

centerless grinding troubles 1191-1192

ceramic materials, diamond wheel 1143

chip breakers 973-974

cost 1146

cutting forces 1134

cutting time formula 1084

cutting torque 1134

cylindrical 1182-1190

cylindrical grinding troubles 1186-1189

data selection including wheel life 1135

data, wheel life selection 1135

diamond wheel 971-973, 1143-1144, 1171-1177

ECT,grinding 1129

equivalent diameter factor 1133

feeds 1128

finishing 1136

floor and bench stand 1199

fluids 1114

grindability groups 1136

grinding rules and data selection 1128

heat resistant alloys 1142

inconel 1142

internal centerless 1190

milling cutters 811

minimum cost conditions 1131

mounted wheels and points 952

offhand grinding 1199

optimization planning 1146

optimum grinding data for roughing 1131

planing tools 740

plunge 1182

portable grinding 1199

power 1134

procedure to determine data 1138

ratio 1128

relative grindability 1137

rene 1142

rpm, various speeds and diameters 1181

screw threads 1958-1961

side feed, roughing and finishing 1136

silicon carbide wheels 971-973

spark-out time 1133

specific metal removal rates 1133

speeds 1133

spindles for portable tools 948

stainless steels 1139

surface 1192-1198

surface finish, Ra 1132

surface grinding troubles 1197

swing-frame 1199

terms and definitions 1137

tool steels 1140-1142

tools

carbide 971-973

twist drills 968-971

traverse 1182

unhardened steels 1139

user calibration of recommendations 1144

vertical and angle spindles 948

wheel life

cost 1146

grinding data relationship 1130

grinding ratio 1128

life vs. cost 1146

relationships and optimum grinding data 1130

wheel safety 1177-1181

handling 1177

inspection 1177

machine conditions 1177

mounting 1177

portable grinders 1180

safe operating speeds 1179-1181

speed conversion table 1181

speeds, maximum 1180

storage 1177

wheel safety grades 1148

wheels 1147-1170, 1177-1181

abrasive materials for 1147-1148

angles for eccentric type radial relief angles on milling cutters 816-817

bond properties 1148, 1197

CBN 1148, 1165, 1174

cubic boron nitride 1147, 1165

wheels

cutting fluids 1135

diamond 769

truing of 1166-1170

dressing and truing of 1166-1170

eccentric type 816

faces, shapes of 1158

finishing 1136

grades 1148

handling 1178

inspection 1178

markings, standard 1149-1150

mounted wheels and points

metric 954

mounting and safety 1177-1178

radial relief angle 816

roughing 1136

safe operating speeds 1135

selection of 1135, 1150-1170

sequence of markings 1149

shapes and sizes, standard 1150-1158

metric 1156-1157

side feed 1136

silicate bonding process 1197

single point truing diamonds 1170

storage 1178

structure 1148-1149

truing

diamond feeds 1169

diamond sizes 1169

dressing of 1166-1170

vitrified 1197

wheel markings 1149

work speed

and depth of cut selection 1129

in rough and finish grinding 1133

Grooved drive studs

dimensions 1666

hole sizes 1666

Grooved pins 1662

designation 1663

hole sizes 1663

lengths and sizes 1662

materials 1663, 1665

properties 1665

requirements 1663

standard sizes 1665

type 1664

Grooving and oil feeding of bearings 2230

Grooving insert holder 746-748

GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) 1358-1363

Guide bearings 2222, 2261

Guldinus or Pappus rules 65

Gutta percha, turning 1053

Gyration, radius of 229

bar, small diameter 229

circular disk, thin 230

circular ring, thin flat 230

cone, frustum 231

cylinder, hollow 231

ellipsoid 232

flat plate, thin 229

hollow cylinder, thin 231

hollow sphere 232

paraboloid 232

parallelepiped 230

parallelogram 229

prism, rectangular 231

ring 229

sphere, hollow 232

spherical shell, thin 232

thin flat plate 229

H

Half circle

moment of inertia 238

radius of gyration 238

section modulus 238

Hand

expansion reamers 832

of flute helix 787

of milling cutter 785

reamers 820

Hard facing 1369

austenitic high chromium irons 1370

austenitic manganese steels 1370

cobalt base alloys 1370

copper base alloys 1371

high speed steels 1369

materials 1369

nickel-chromium-boron alloys 1372

Hard rubber, machining 1126

Hardening 471-473

alloy steels 414

steel 461, 470, 473

flame 487

induction 487

temperatures

stainless steel 494-495

tool steels 473

test methods 466

tool steels 435

Hardmetals 761-771

carbonitride based 764

coated 766

ISO classifications 767

titanium carbide 763

tooling for wood and nonmetals 771

tungsten carbide 762-764

Hardness 465

aluminum alloys 533-541

bearings 2226

ceramics 389

cobalt alloys 392

copper alloys 391

copper-base powdered alloys 393

heat-treated steels 422-423

iron-base powdered alloys 393

magnesium alloys 546

nickel alloys 392

number

Brinell 510

Rockwell 510

steel 1312

O-ring 2501, 2503

plastics 390

powdered metal alloys 393

relation to tensile strength 509

scales

comparison 507-509

Rockwell 506

unhardness scales 510

stainless steel 392

steel 391

carbon and alloy 424-429

tool steels 446, 448-449, 455, 458

testing 505

Brinell 505

conversion errors, causes 509

conversion tables 508

correction for curvature 2326

durometer 509, 2504

Hultgren ball 505, 509

Keep's test 507

Mohs hardness scale 509

monotron 507

Rockwell 506, 508

scleroscope 506, 509

Turner's sclerometer 509

Vickers 506, 509

tungsten-base powdered alloys 393

Hardness number conversion 1531

Harmonic 181

Harvey grip thread 1892

HDL, Hydrodynamic Lubrication 2334

Heat

absolute temperature and zero 2599

coefficients of radiation 376

coefficients of transmission 376

fahrenheit-celsius conversion 2599

freezing mixtures 377

ignition temperatures 377

latent 373

loss from uncovered steam pipes 374

mechanical equivalent 2599

power equivalents 2594

quantity measurement 2599

radiating capacity of bearings 2230-2231

radiation coefficient 376

scales 2599

specific 373-374

temperature scales 2599

thermal energy 2599

Heat treating furnace

fluidized bed furnace 471

oven or box 470

pit type 470

pot type 470

retort 470

vacuum furnace 470

Heat treatment 461-505

alloy steel 491

carburizing temperatures 491

normalizing temperatures 491

tempering temperatures 491

carbon steels 490

molybdenum high speed steels 500

stainless steel 494-495

quenching medium 494-495

tempering temperatures 494-495

stainless steel temperatures 494-495

steel 407, 461-470, 473, 1312

annealing 408, 461, 465, 482

annealing temperatures 483

baths quenching 477

carburizing temperatures 484, 490

case hardening 484

cleaning work after case hardening 486

colors for tempering 480

cooling period 504

cooling subzero, to improve properties 504

cyanide hardening 485

decalescence point 461, 470

defects in hardening 475

flame hardening 487

furnaces 461, 469-470

hardening baths 475

hardening temperatures 461, 470, 473, 491

hardening, defects in 475

induction hardening 487-489

interrupted quenching 477

lead bath temperatures 474

liquid baths 474

nitriding 501

normalizing 408, 482, 484

temperatures 490

oil quenching 475

pack-hardening 485

pressure-spraying quenching 476

protective coatings for molybdenum steels 500

quenching 498

temperatures 491

quenching baths 475

recalescence point 461, 470

scale formation 475

spheroidizing 482-483

stabilizing dimensions 503-504

strength and hardness of AISI steels 424-429

stress relieving 408

subzero treatments 504

surface hardening 489

steel

tanks for quenching baths 477

tempering 464, 479

temperatures 490

tempering period 504

time aging 503

water quenching 476

Hectares into acres 2579

Helical

end mills 797

gear, helix angle 1967

milling, change gears 1966

wire screw thread inserts 1622

Helical coil insert 1520

block and spacer torque test 1524

breakaway toque 1529

coatings 1520

configuration 1520

dimensions 1520

maximum locking torque 1529

properties 1520

self locking toque 1529

torque test 1524

torque test spacer 1530

Helical coil screw thread Inserts 1519

chemical composition 1523

compatibility 1519

dimensions 1519

hardness 1531

helical coil insert 1520

insert length data 1523-1528

inspection 1523

length selection 1530-1531

material selection 1530

tapped hole 1519

taps 1531

threaded hole data 1521-1522

tolerance classes 1519

types 1519

Helical gearing 2030, 2100-2115

addendum 2100

modifications 2078

backlash 2069

British Standard 2077

calculations 2100

center distance 2100

exact 2103

for enlarged 2112

change gears 2113

checking gear size 2135, 2140

cutter for milling 2109

data on drawings 2068

direction of thrust 2100

enlarged fine-pitch pinions 2109, 2111-2112

feed rate change 2114

fine pitch teeth 2111

formulas 2100, 2102-2106, 2108, 2111

helical overlap 2032

helix angles 2101, 2106

herringbone type 2115

hobbing 2113, 2115

involute form milling cutter 2110

lead accuracy 2114

lead of tooth 2100

machine

with differential 2114

without differential 2113

measurements using wires or balls 2140

milling the helical teeth 2110

minimum center distance 2106, 2108

normal tooth thickness 2040

pitch diameter 2100

pitch of cutter 2101

replacement gear dimensions 2156

shafts

at right angles 2104-2105

parallel 2102-2103

shafts at right angle 2107

specifications 2066

spur gear replacement by helical gears 2154, 2156

thrust 2100

tooth proportions 2040

tooth thickness measurement 2140

troubleshooting 2115

wire diameter 2135

Helical milling

development of helix 1966

helix angle 1967

lead of ahelix 1966

Helical overlap 2032

Helix 1966

angle 1967, 2032

angle factor 2079

angles, screw threads 1750-1759

constructing 64

end mills with welden shanks 793

lead and diameter 1982-1983

lead and pitch radius 1983

lead angle 1967

lead for given angle 1978-1980

measurement of angle 1966

number of tooth 1983

Herringbone gearing 2115

failures 2115

Hertz stress 2032

Hertzian contact area 2334

Hexagon

area 71

distance across corners 80

moment of inertia 237

radius of gyration 237

section modulus 237

Highest point of single tooth contact (HPSTC) 2032, 2062

High-speed steels 446-448, 980

annealing rehardening 498

as cutting tool materials 980

cobalt 872-873

cobaltcrom 496

cooling period 504

cutters 814

drawing 498

hardening molybdenum 499

heat treatment 496

annealing 499

cutting efficiency 497

equipment 501

hardening temperatures 497

preheating tungsten 496

quenching

molybdenum 500

tungsten 497-498

subzero treatment 505

tempering molybdenum 500

time for through hardening 497

molybdenum 446, 451, 499-501

hardening 499

quenching straightening 498

tempering 498

tool 448

tungsten 448, 451, 496, 499

tungsten annealing 499

High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels

(see HSLA steels)

Hob tip radius, maximum 2061

Hobs

change gears for relieving 1951

roller chain sprocket 2469-2470

tip radius, maximum 2061

worm gear 2096

Holders for NC, insert 742-748, 758-760

Hold-on or dolly bars for riveting 1640

Hole sizes, tapping 1936-1937

Holes

accuracy of drilled 872

difficulties in reaming 828

for riveted joints 1635

for tapping 1926-1933

in glass, drilling 1035

sizes for self-tapping screws 1615

Hollow

circle, moment of inertia 238

circle, radius of gyration 238

circle, section modulus 238

cylinder, radius of gyration 231

mills, feeds and speeds 1102

sphere, radius of gyration 232

Homopolymers 552

Honing process 1203-1205

adjustments 1204-1205

carbide tools 973-974

rotative speeds in 1203-1205

stock removal, rate of 1203

tolerances 1205

Hooke's law 560

plastics 554

Horsepower 156

calculating by dynamometer 2370

chain transmission 2461-2465

converted into kilowatts 2594-2595

disk clutches 2360

drilling different materials 1060

dynamometer test 2369-2371

electric motor 2487

ratings 2480

equivalents 2594-2595

formulas 193

friction wheels 2370-2372

gearing 2150-2151

hour equivalents 2594

machining 1054-1060

nonmetallic gears 2150-2151

planing and shaping 1054-1058

roller chains 2461-2465

set-screw transmitting capacity 1605

shafting 296-298

spade drilling 1050, 1060-1061

torque equivalent 296-298

V-belt drives 2401

Hose connection screw threads 1873-1877

ANSI Standards 1873

basic dimension 1876

tolerances 1876

Hot-working, tool steels for 449

HSLA steels 400-401

application 420

chemical compositions 421

composition 420

elongation 421

formability 421

properties 420

tensile strength 421

toughness 421

weldability 421

yield strength 421

Hunting tooth ratio 2099

Hydrant screw thread 1875-1877

Hydrodynamic film lubrication 2334

Hydrometer, Baumé's, and specific gravity 382

Hyperbola

area 74

area construction 64

eccentricity 53

foci 53

general equation 53

major and minor axis 53

Hypocycloidal curves, areas 67

Hypoid gears 2030, 2081, 2083-2084

applications of 2084

Hypotenuse 94

Hysteresis 310

I

I-beam

aluminum 2517

standard structural steel 2512

structural

moment of inertia 2508-2512

section modulus 2508-2512

steel 2508

weight per foot 2508-2512

Idler gears 2010

Ignition temperature 377

Impact force of 190

Impact strength, Izod

carbon and alloy steels 424-425

plastics 390

Impulse 191-193

angular momentum 192

Inch

decimals of, into millimeters 2572-2573

into centimeter and millimeter 2569

millimeters into decimals of 3, 2568, 2574-2575

Inclined plane 176, 186

force for moving body on 176

forces on 175

motion on 186

Inconel metals 547-548

Index plates, one hole moves of angular values 1992

Indexable

carbide inserts 740

insert holder

boring 746-748

chamfering 746-748

end cutting edge angle 745

facing 746-748

grooving 746-748

identification system 741, 743

insert shape 745

lead angle 745

NC 742-748, 758-760

planing 746-748

plunge angle 746

rake angle 745

selection 745

shank sizes 743

shape 746

tracing 746-748

turning and backfacing 746-748

turning and facing 746-748

Indexing

angular 1991-2008

block or multiple 2022-2023

Brown and Sharpe milling machine 2012-2017

compound 1985-1990

compound gearing ratio 2010

differential 2009

ratio of gearing 2009

gear ratio finding 2010

head angular position for

head angular position for

milling end mills and angular cutters 809-812

head worm wheel with 64 teeth 2024

hole circles 1984

milling machine 1984-1990

movements 1986-2008, 2010-2021, 2024-2025

number of holes 1984

ratio of gearing 2010

reamer teeth for irregular spacing 821

simple 1984-1990, 2012-2017

simple and differential 2012-2017

smaller angles 2008

tables 2022

Indicator drop method 817

Induction

annealing 488

brazing 1336

hardening 468, 487-489

equipment 487

gear teeth 489

normalizing 488

Inertia 156

electric motor 2488

moment of 234-256

polar 245-246

Injection mold design 584

Injection molding 583

plastics 591

Injection molding, metal 1323

Insert configuration 1523

Insert length data 1523-1528

Insert length selection 1530-1531

Insert radius compensation 758

Inserts

hardmetal materials 761-771

holders for NC 742-748, 758-760

indexable 740-748, 758-760

radius compensation, NC 758-760

screw thread 1622

self-tapping screw 1622

throw away carbide 761

Inspection methods 674

Instrument maker's thread system 1885

Integration of functions 34

Interest 135-138

compound 135

finding unknown rate 137

nominal vs. effective 136

simple 135

Interference 2032

Interference fit threads 1878-1883

allowances 1882

British Standard 1543

change in diameter 1883

coarse threads 1882

design and application data 1879

designation symbols 1879

dimensions 1880

driving speed 1881

driving torque and length of engagement relation 1882

engagement lengths 1881

interferences 1879, 1881

lead and angle variations 1883

lubrication 1881

materials for 1881

profile 1878

spur gearing 2051, 2053

surface roughness 1882

thread dimensions 1880

tolerances for pitch diameter 1882

torques 1881

variation in axial lead 1883

Interferometer 1218

Internal diameter 2032

Internal gears 2032

spur 2030, 2075

International System (SI) units 2560

Interpolation 120, 122

Interrupted quenching 476-477

Inverse

and direct proportions combined 7

of a matrix 132

ratio or reciprocal 5

Investment

casting 1323

design 1325

making procedure 1323

milling cutters 1326

materials 1324

Investment casting alloy

elongation 391-392

hardness 391-392

tensile strength 391-392

yield strength 391-392

Involute 2032

constructing 64

curve properties 2036

curve, properties 2035

functions 109-113

gear cutters, formed type 2053, 2075

serrations 2157

true form diameter in gears 2033

Involute splines 2032, 2157, 2160-2178

American National Standard 2157

application factor 2172

basic dimension 2163

basic rack profile 2182

bursting stress 2174

chamfers and fillets 2165, 2182

circular pitch 2158, 2163

classes of tolerances 2163

combinations 2168

combinations of types 2168

compressive stress at side teeth 2174

compressive stresses allowable 2173

crowning for misalignment 2174

diametral pitch 2159

dimensions, effective and actual 2178, 2180

drawing data 2168, 2170

effect of spline variations 2166

effective

and actual dimensions 2166-2167, 2176

clearance 2159

space width 2159

tooth thickness 2159

variation 2159, 2181

fatigue life factor 2173

fillet 2159

chamfers 2165, 2182

root splines 2159, 2165

fit classes 2163, 2178, 2182

flat root splines 2159, 2165

form circle 2160

form clearance 2160

form diameter 2160

formulas 2182

basic dimension 2162, 2178, 2180

2-pin measurement 2176

fretting damage 2175

inspection

methods 2175

types of gages 2176

with gages 2176

interchangeability 2168

internal splines 2160, 2168

lead variations 2160, 2166

length of engagement 2160

length of splines 2171

load distribution factors 2172

machining tolerance 2160, 2182

major circle 2160

major diameter fit 2160, 2163

manufacturing 2188

maximum

actual space width 2167

actual tooth thickness 2167

effective space width 2168

effective tooth thickness 2167

metric module 2177-2182

milling cutter 812

minimum

actual space width 2167

actual tooth thickness 2167

effective space width 2167

effective tooth thickness 2168

minor circle 2160

minor diameter 2160

misalignment 2172

parallelism variation 2160

pin measurement of 2176

pitch 2160

circle 2160

diameter 2160

pitch

point 2160

pressure angle 2160

rack profiles 2181

reference dimensions 2168, 2170, 2182

shear stress

allowable 2173

at pitch diameter 2174

at the pitch diameter of teeth 2174

under roots of external teeth 2173

side fit 2163

sizes and lengths, estimating 2170-2171

space width and tooth thickness limits 2167, 2178

stub pitch 2160

symbols 2160-2161, 2168, 2178

tensile stresses allowable 2173

terms and definition 2158, 2178

tolerances 2163, 2178, 2181

tolerances and variations 2181

tooth

numbers 2160, 2163

proportions 2160-2182

thickness limits 2167, 2181

thickness modification 2181

torque capacity formulas 2171

total index variation 2160

total tolerance 2160

types and classes of fits 2163

variations 2166, 2181

allowance 2160, 2166

eccentricity 2166

effect of 2181

effect of profile 2166

lead 2166

types of 2158, 2181

wear life factors, flexible splines 2173

width and tooth thickness 2181

Iron

and copper-base sintered bearings 2269

castings 1309

coloring 1412

copper-base sintered bearings 2268

Iron-base powdered alloys 393

density 393

elongation 393

hardness 393

rupture strength 393

ultimate strength 393

yield strength 393

I-section

moment of inertia 239

radius of gyration 239

section modulus 239

ISO Standard

cleanliness code for lubrication 2352

drawing symbols, compared with ANSI 611

geometric dimensioning and tolerancing 612

metric

grade markings on bolts 1540

hexagon bolts, screws and nuts 1536

limits and fits, British Standard 661

thread 1806, 1824

thread system, miniature screw threads 1815

surface finish 723

profiles 726

surface parameter symbols 724

washers, compared with ANSI 1514

ISO surface finish 723

ISO VG - viscosity 2338

Isosceles triangle 94

Isothermal

quenching 479

Izod impact strength

carbon and alloy steels 424-425

plastics 390

J

Jacobs tapers 937

Jam nuts, standard 1446, 1452-1453

metric 1512

Jarno taper 924, 935

Jig

boring

lengths of chords 708

Jobbers reamers 833

drills 844-850

Johnson, J. B., column formula 285-286

Joining plastics 592

Joints

riveted 1635

toggle 179

universal 2358

Journal bearing (see Bearings: journal )

K

Karat 2587

Keep's hardness test 507

Kelvin, degrees 2599

Key and spline sizes and lengths 2170

Keying bearings 2224

Keys and bits, hexagon and spline 1598

Keys and keyseats 2373

alignment tolerances 2386

ANSI Standard 2373

chamfered keys 2390, 2396

cotters 2394, 2396

depth control values 2386

depth of keyseat 2396

depths for milling keyseats 2396

effect on shaft strength 302

estimating key sizes 2170

filleted keyseats 2390, 2396

fitting 2389

gib-head keys 2388

keyseat milling cutters, Woodruff 808

keyseats, depth of 2386, 2396

milling cutters and arbors 807

parallel and taper 2386, 2389

plain 2388

set screws for keys 2390

shaft diameter 2385

size vs. shaft diameter 2385, 2396

strength considerations for shafts 302

tolerances 2388, 2390-2392

transmission chain 2456

woodruff keys and keyseats 2390

Keys and keyways

designation 2373, 2382

dimension of square and rectangular parallel keys 2374

dimensions and tolerances 2380

dimensions and tolerancing 2376

keyways dimension 2376

keyways tolerances 2376

lengths and tolerances 2373-2374, 2379

materail 2382

material 2373

parallel keys dimensions 2378

parallel keys tolerances 2378

square and parallel keys 2374

square and rectangular type 2373-2377

tolerances 2373, 2382

woodruf 2382

Kibi 2562

Kilogram calorie 2599

Kilograms

into pounds 2587-2588

per cubic meter into pounds per cubic foot 2589

per square centimeter into pounds per square inch 2591

per square meter into pounds per square foot 2591

per square meter into pounds per square inch 2591

Kilometers into miles 2578

Kilopascals into pounds per square inch 2591

Kilowatt

hour equivalents 2594

into horsepower 2595

power required for machining 1054

Kinematic viscosity 2338

Kinematics and kinetics 156

Kinetic energy 188-190

Kingsbury thrust bearing 2243

Kirchoff current law 134

Kirchoff voltage law 134

K-Monel, machining 1125

Knee tools, speeds and feeds 1102

Knoop hardness numbers 507

Knuckle joints 2359

proportions 2359

Knurls and knurling 1210-1214

automatic screw machines 1101-1106

concave 1214

diagonal teeth 1210

diametral pitch knurls 1210-1214

dies marking 1214

flat tools 1212

formulas 1212

lathe knurls 1210

revolutions required for top knurling 1101

sizes, preferred 1210

speeds and feeds 1102

straight teeth 1210

tools 1211

tracking correction 1210

work diameter tolerances 1213-1214

L

Lag screws and threads 1450-1451

metric 1493

Lame's formula for internal pressure 292

Land gear tooth drill 842

Laps and lapping 1205-1209

abrasives 1208

carbide tools 973-974

charging laps 1207

cutting properties 1208

cutting qualities 1208

flat surfaces 1206

grading abrasives for 1206

grading diamond dust for 1207

lubricants 1208

materials for 1205-1206

pressures 1209

rotary diamond 1207

tests 1209

wear 1208

wet and dry 1209

Lasers 1392-1404

beam focusing 1392-1393

beams 1392

cladding 1403

cutting metal with 1396

cut edge roughness 1397

cutting speeds 1400

heat-affected zone 1398-1399

kerf widths 1397

narrow kerf 1397

cutting nonmetals 1398-1399

direct drilling 1402

drilling 1402

drilling rates 1403

drilling theory 1402

hardening rates 1403

heat affected zones 1398

heat treatment 1403

industrial applications 1394

industrial systems 1394

light 1392

marking 1404

mask marking 1404

materials 1395, 1403

nonmetals cutting rates 1400

safety 1395

scanned beam marking 1404

thermal properties 1396

trepanning 1403

types of industrial 1394

welding

conduction 1400

deep penetration keyhole 1400

joint design 1400-1401

processing gas 1401

helium 1402

rates 1400-1401

theory 1400

Latent heat 373

Lathe

change gears 1947

screw constant 1947

Law of cosines 95

Law of sines 95

Lay symbols 720

Lead

angle of cutting tools 733

inserts 758

angle of screw thread 1966

tables for 1750-1759, 1828, 1836, 1847, 1909

of helix

change gears and angles for milling 1981-1982

find change gears for milling 1968-1977

for given angles 1978-1980, 1983

of milling machine 1965

of screw thread 1894, 1966

side cutting edge 738

Lead and lead alloys

element 372

lead bath 474

tempering in 481

melting temperatures 372, 481

solder 1329

Lead-base alloys, die casting 1322

Leaded-bronze bearings 2262-2265

Leadscrews 2475

Length

differences due to temperature 379

engagement of screw thread 1443

of action 2032

of engagement 1936

of rivets for forming heads 1640

units and conversion of 2565-2578

Lengths and tolerances 2373-2374

Letter symbols for mechanics 2559

Levers 174

Light

duty Belts and pulleys

V-belts 2420-2427

laser 1392

metals

drilling, reaming, and threading 1040

milling 1014

turning 1008

wave interference bands, measuring surface variations with 705

Limestone

cutting speed for 1053

strength 394

Limit

D or DU on taps 887

elastic 201

endurance 202

H- and L-limits 882

proportional 200-201

Limits and fits

actual size 633

allowance 633

ANSI Standard preferred metric 638

basic size 633-634, 647, 662

British Standard for holes and shafts 662-670

cylindrical fits, ANSI Standard 633-659

definitions 638

design size 633

deviations for holes 669

deviations for shafts 667

dimension 633

gagemakers tolerance 660

gages, plain 628, 660

gages, thread 1915

graphical representation 638-639

indicating on drawings 627

maximum material condition 634

metric screw threads 1787

minimum material condition 634

screw thread gages 1915

size, nominal 633

symbols 649

tolerance 633, 648

bilateral 634

unilateral 634

tolerance limit 634

tolerances 634, 662

woodruff keys 2391-2392

Line

angle between two 42

conventions for drawings 608

distance between point 39, 42

distance to external point 40

equation of 40

geometry of 57

intermediate points on 39

of action 2032

parallel 41

perpendicular 41

slope of 40

Linear

coefficient of expansion 376, 379-380

metals 376-378

plastics 376

deflection of shafting 299

Linear motion 2475

Liquid

baths, heating steel in 474

depth to volume conversion 67-68

specific gravity 381

Liters

into cubic feet 2584

into U.S. gallons 2582

Lloyd and lloyd thread 1893

Load

rating, static, bearings 2320

ratings and fatigue life, bearings 2308-2324

Lobing 703

Lock nut pipe thread 1893

Lock nuts, ball and roller bearing 2300

Lock wire proceedure 1444

Locking torque 1529

Locknuts, ball and roller bearing 2300

shafts for 2301-2302

Lockwashers

ANSI Standard 1473-1476

ball and roller bearing 2299

British Standard, metric

plain 1546-1548

spring 1544-1546

spring type 1473-1474

tooth lock 1475

tooth type 1473, 1475-1476

Logarithms 121-128

common 121, 125-126

extracting roots by 124

mantissa 121

natural 121, 123, 127-128

obtaining powers by 123

tables 125-128

common 125-126

natural 127-128

using calculator to find 123

Long angle lathe file 965

Long hand threading, CNC 1249

Low pressure casting 1316

Löwenherz thread 1850

L-section

moment of inertia 243

radius of gyration 243

section modulus 243

Lubricants 2336

bearings 2228-2230

cutting 1113-1118

electric motors 2492

grease 2228, 2344

operating temperature 2230

press work 1288

properties of additves 2342

temperature vs. viscosity 2229

Lubrication 2227-2230, 2333-2355

absolute viscosity 2338

additive properties 2342

analysis 2240

analysis, journal bearings 2234

application 2346

comparison of methods 2350

bearings

grease packing guidlines 2349

blanking 1289

boundry film 2334

chain 2473

cleanliness codes 2352

contamination 2351

contamination with water 2353

delivery methods 2349

drawing 1289

economic impact 2336

efficiency filtration 2355

film thickness 2240

film thickness ratio 2333

film transition 2334

films 2333

filter efficiency 2355

filter filtration ratio 2355

filtration 2354

grease 2344

application 2348

greases 2229

hertzian contact area 2334

hydrodynamic 2334

hydrodynamic flow 2237

ISO cleanliness 2352

kinematic viscosity 2338

method 2305

mixed film 2334

motors 2492

oil 2337

oil bath 2228

oil film thickness values 2336

oxidation 2343

plain bearings 2227

pressure flow 2239

recirculative oil systems 2348

replenishment rates 2348

roller chain 2473

selection 2346

selection for bearings 2228

surface degredation 2336

systems 2349

temperature effects 2339

terminating oil systems 2348

theory 2333

total flow 2239

viscosity 2229, 2338

viscosity index (V.I.) 2339

viscosity selection 2346

waste pack 2228

wear

corrosive 2337

mechanical abrasion 2337

mechanical adhesion 2337

mechanical fatigue 2337

Lumber, sizes of sawn 388

M

M codes, CNC 1232

M profile tap limits 906

Machinability

copper alloys 514-526

of wood 387

Machine

accuracy, effect of on part tolerances 1219

countersinks 827

cutting time formula 1084

elements, subjected to compressive loads 283

nuts coating 1573

screw coating 1573

screw nuts 1582

settings costs 1083

settings economy 1083

tool

accuracy 1215

efficiency 1058

repeatability 1215

resolution 1215

Machine screw taps 880

Machine screws

ANSI Standard 1549-1571

binding head 1557

body diameter 1550

British Metric 1572, 1585

British Standard 1581-1582

British Unified 1582-1584

BSW and BSF 1572, 1578, 1585

cheese head 1580

chesse head screw 1580, 1583

clearance holes, metric 1571

countersunk head 1551, 1566-1567, 1577

countersunk head screw 1582

cross recesses 1558

designation 1550, 1564

diameter of body 1564

diameter of unthreaded shank 1574

end of screws 1577

fillister head 1555

flange head metric 1569

flat head 1550-1552, 1566

header points for metric 1555-1556, 1572

header points for threading 1556-1557

hex and hex flange 1569

hexagon head screw 1553, 1583

hexagon nuts 1549

hexagon washer head 1552

lengths of thread 1564, 1573-1574

metric countersunk 1565, 1567

metric recessed countersunk head 1565

metric thread lengths 1565

metric, ANSI standard 1564-1571

mushroom head screw 1583

nuts for 1549

oval head 1555-1557, 1567

pan head screw 1554, 1568, 1579, 1583

radius under the head 1574

recessed flat head 1566

recessed pan head 1568

round head screw 1558, 1582

slotted and crosses 1566, 1568

slotted countersunk head 1551, 1576

slotted pan head 1579

slotted, recessed 1567

square nuts 1549

tap and clearance drills 1926-1933, 1935, 1939

thread 1565, 1573

truss head 1553

washerhead 1552

washers for 1469-1474, 1546-1548

Machine tool

lathe, change gears for fractional ratios 1948

motor types 2490-2491

Machining

aluminum 1123

bearings 2226

copper alloys 1126

economy

chip thickness 1093, 1095

depth of cut 1093, 1095

high speed 1092

high speed milling 1099

formica 1126

hard rubber 1126

magnesium 1124-1125

micarta 1127

monel and nickel alloys 1125-1126

nonferrous metals 1123-1126

plastics 597

power constants 1054-1055

power factors

chisel-edge 1061

drill diameters 1061

feeds 1055, 1062

machine tool efficiency 1058

metal removal rates 1058

tool wear 1055

work materials 1060

power, estimating 1054-1061

unit horsepower for 1050, 1054-1055, 1059

processes, ANSI Standard tolerance grade relationships 634, 636, 661

speeds and feeds (see Speeds and feeds )

tolerances and variations 2181

ultrasonic 1127

zinc alloy die castings 1125

Machining holes, CNC 1239

Magnesium alloys 544-546, 1321

applications 544

bearing strength 546

coloring 1413

compositions 545

compressive strength 546

cutting fluids for 1118, 1124-1125

designations 544

die casting 1321

elongation 546

extruded bars 545

machining 1124-1125

mechanical properties 546

plate 545

pressure die casting 545

properties 546

sand and permanent mold 545

shear strength 546

sheet 545

soldering of 1331

tensile strength 546

yield strength 546

Magnesium, coating 1415

Magnetic clutches 2362-2363

Malleable

iron castings 1310

Iron Research Institute 1318

strength 1310

Manganese

bronze castings 516

gearing material 2148

steel 404-405

Manganese-bronze castings 516

Mantissa, logarithm 121

Manufacturers' standard gage for sheet steel 2522

Marble turning 1053

Martempering 479

Martensite 469

Mass 156-158

units and conversion of 2587-2589

Material 2373, 2382

Material strength 1530

Materials

disc spring 352

mechanical properties of 200-201

spring, disc 352

Mathematical

constants, frequently used 16

signs and abbreviations 2558

Matrix 129-132

addition 129

adjoint 131

cofactors 131

column 129

determination 130

diagonal 129

identity 129

inverse 132

minors 131

multiplication 129

rank 132

row 129

simultaneous equations 132

singular 132

square 129-130

subtraction 129

zero 129

Maximum

bending load, wood 386

temperature, plastics 390

MBEC bearing tolerances 2264

MDI 1228

Mean positional deviation 1215-1218

Measurement of backlash 2072

Measuring

angles with sine-bar 677-687

buttress thread 1911

compound angles 118-120

dovetail slides 695

gear size 2126-2144

instruments and gaging methods 674

over pins

bolt circle 699

gear size 2126-2144

splines 2176

over pins, bolt circle 699

pitch diameter

thread ring gages 1912

three wire method 1901

radius or arc, over rolls 699-700

tapers 680

center distance 698

diameter 698

threads

American standard 1900-1902

buttress 1911-1912

taper screw 1910

tapered 1910

using micrometer 1894

using screw thread gage 1911

using three-wire method 1895, 1911

Whitworth 1902

V-shaped groove, over pins 699

with light-wave interference bands 705

with micrometer 676-677, 1894

with vernier 674-675

Measuring screw threads

Acme thread 1900

Acme thread thickness 1906

ball point micrometer 1895

buckingham involute helicoid formula 1904

buttress thread 1900, 1911

contact pressure, measurement 1898

formula for checking pitch diameter 1900

formula to taper pipe threads 1910

formula, three wire method 1899

helical gear formula 1904

lowenherz 1900

pipe thread 1900

pitch diameter equivalent 1910

profiles 1896

three wire method 1898

Acme threads 1906, 1908

buttress thread 1911

checking thickness of Acme thread 1906

stub Acme threads 1906, 1908

testing angle of thread 1907

wire diameters and constants 1908

wire sizes 1907

V thread 1900

Whitworth 1900, 1902

wire accuracy 1898

wire diameter 1911

wire sizes for checking pitch diameters 1897

worm thread 1900

Mebi 2562

Mechanical equivalent of heat 2599

Mechanical properties

aluminum alloys 541

bolts, inch sizes 1441-1442

bolts, metric sizes 1488

ceramics 389

copper 527

magnesium 544-546

nickel 547-548

plastics 390, 574

powdered metal alloys 393

spring wire 395

stainless steels 430-431

steel 432

titanium 547, 549

tool steels 433

various materials 200-201

wood 385-386

Mechanics of materials 156

acceleration 184, 186

due to gravity, g 157

algebraic solution of force systems 160, 163-171

angular

impulse 192

momentum 192

velocity 182, 184

center

and radius of oscillation 232

of gravity 222-228, 232

of percussion 232

centrifugal force 194-197

calculating 195

couples 162-163

differential pulley 178

dynamics 156

energy 188-189

force 160, 163-164

force of a blow 190

graphical solution of force systems 160-164

impulse and momentum 191-193

angular 192

inclined plane 176, 186

kinetic energy 188-190

levers 174

linear velocity 182

metric SI units 156-160

moment of inertia 233-249

momentum 191-193

Newton's laws 186

pendulums 180-181

potential energy 188-189

pound force 157

power 193-194

pulleys 177

radius of gyration 229-232

radius of oscillation 232

scalar and vector quantities 160

screw 178

SI metric units 156-160

statics 156

toggle joints 179

torque 187

units 157

vectors 160

velocity, angular 182-185

velocity, linear 182-183

wedge 176

wheels 177

work 189, 193-194

and energy relation 189

and power formulas 193-194

performed by forces and couples 189

Melting points

alloys of copper and zinc 1331-1332

alloys of lead and tin 1329

aluminum 377

brazing alloys 1331-1334

cast iron 378

chemical elements 372

copper alloys 377-378

solder 1329

stainless steels 378

titanium alloys 378

Metal

aluminum alloys 377

balls, standard 2324-2332

bonded grinding wheels 971-972, 1148

casting 1314

coatings

conversion coatings 1411-1413

surface coatings 1413-1420

coloring 1411-1413

drawing 1282

etching 1410-1413

foundry patterns 1318

identification 399, 509

injection molding 1323

numbering systems for 398-407

patterns 1318

plasma welding 1363-1365

removal rate 1058, 1133

slitting saws 789

spraying process 1421

temperature effect on strength 395

working

fluids occupational exposure 1119-1122

working application 1120

working fluids 1119-1120

Metal balls

ordering specification 2325

preferred gages 2326

tolerances 2326

Metal washers

bright 1546

metric series 1546-1547

Metallography 492

Metallurgy, powder 1328

Meters into feet 2578

Metric

basic sizes, British Standard preferred 672

bolts and screws, British Standard clearance holes for 1939

box wrench 1468

conversion factors 2569

dimensions on drawings 720

dowel pins, British Standard 1653-1654

drawings, scales 721

fasteners

ANSI hex nuts 1508

ANSI nut thread series 1510

bolts and screws

bolt designation 1500

bolt thread lengths 1500

cap screws 1502, 1505-1506

clearance holes 1518

diameter-length combinations 1501, 1503

drilled head dimensions 1506

hex flange screws 1502

hex screws 1502

hex structural bolts 1503

identification symbols 1500

neck bolts 1503, 1518

socket head cap screws 1504

fasteners

socket head neck screws 1518

thread length 1500-1501

hex structural bolts 1498

nuts 1508, 1510

ANSI Standard 1508

bearing surfaces 1508

materials 1508

mechanical properties 1508

heavy hex structural bolts 1498

hex bolts 1499

inch vernier, dual 675-676

International System of Units (SI) 2560-2562

ISO limits and fits, British Standard 661

micrometer, reading 676-677

module, gear cutter 2053

gear teeth 2122-2125

round head square neck bolts 1496-1497

screw

shoulder

socket head 1494

shoulder socket head 1494

screw threads

aerospace screws, bolts and nuts 1806

basic profile 1714, 1788

crest diameter tolerance 1820

design profiles 1818

designation 1818-1819

diameter pitch combinations 1805-1806, 1824

dimensional effect of coating 1793

fits 1788

fundamental deviation 1790, 1819

length of thread engagement 1791, 1818

lengths of engagement 1820-1823

limiting dimensions formula 1793

limits and fits 1787

limits and tolerance 1820-1823

M crest 1784

M profile 1784

external thread 1784

internal thread 1784

M profile designations 1790

minor diameter tolerances 1790

MJ profile

designations 1808

symbols 1808

root form 1784

tolerance system 1790

tolerances of external threads 1795, 1797-1798

tolerances of pitch -diameter 1795

series British ISO

hexagon bolts, nuts, and screws 1536

machine screws and nuts 1572-1581

metal washers 1546-1548

spring washers 1544-1546

SI units, factors and prefixes 2562

sizes, preferred for flat metal products 2523

systems of measurement 2560

threads, British (ISO) 1806, 1815, 1824

threads, SI 1858

twist drills, ANSI 842-861

vernier, reading 675

washers, plain, ANSI 1511, 1514

wrench, clearances 1468

Metric system (SI) 156-157

base units 158

in mechanics calculations 156-160

in strength of materials calculations 200, 210-212, 215, 218-221, 229, 233-234, 257, 270, 274-275, 277-278, 280-281, 283, 290-294, 297-299, 301-303

Micarta, machining 1127

Microinch 2565

into micrometers (microns) 2576-2577

Micrometer

into microinches 2576-2577

reading 676-677

screw thread 1894

Microscope screw thread 1886-1890

Mil 2565

Miles into kilometers 2578

Military plating specifications 1413-1420

Mill or saw files 963

Millimeters

hundreds of, into inches 2569

into inches 3, 2568-2569, 2574-2575

thousandths of an inch, into 2572-2573

Milling

angular 790, 796

cam 2213

change gears for helical or spiral 1965-1983

chip geometry 1094

cost 1092

cutters, hollow 1102

depth of cut 1026-1028

economy 1099

feeds for

cemented carbide cutters 1014-1023

high-speed steel cutters 1024

in inches per tooth for cemented carbide cutters 1014-1023

helical, change gears for different leads 1965-1983

horsepower for 1052-1060

lead angle 1026, 1028

machine tool shanks 943

short lead 1966

speed adjustment factors 1026-1028

speeds and feeds

aluminum alloys 1014

automatic screw machine 1102

copper alloys 1007, 1025

ferrous cast metals 1022-1023

speeds and feeds

light metals 1014

metal slitting (saws) 789, 1013

plain carbon and alloy steels 1015-1018

stainless steels 1020-1021

titanium and titanium alloys 1008

tool steels 1019-1020

thread 1963-1964

Milling cutters 784-819

ANSI Standard 785-808

arbor keys and keyways 807

arbor type 803

bevel gear 805, 2090-2091

casting 1326

clearance angles 784, 813

concave and convex 803

corner rounding 788, 803

double angle 790

eccentric type radial relief 814

end mills 792-802

medium helix 801

stub length 801

terminology 791

with weldon shanks 801

gear 804-805

grinding or sharpening 811-819

hand of

cut 785-786

cutter 785

flute helix 787

rotation 786

helical gear 2110

high speed steel 795

indicator drop methods of checking relief and rake angles 814

keys and keyways 807

keyseat 808

metal slitting (saws) 789

mounting method 785

multiple flute 797

number of teeth 784

peripheral teeth 815

pitch diameter 2110

plain and ball end 798

radial relief angle 815

rake angles 784, 814

relief on cutting edges 785

relieved corner rounding cutters 788

roller chain sprocket 805-806

selection of 784

setting angles for milling teeth in 809-812

sharpening wheels 812

shell mills 791

single angle 790, 796-797

sintered carbide 814

speeds and feeds for sharpening 813

spline shaft 812

spur gear 804, 2053

taper and weldon shanks 788

teeth, clearance angles 813

terminology 789

tool material 814

T-slot 788

weldon shanks 788, 800, 802

with taper shanks 797

Woodruff keyseats 808

Milling machine

Brown & Sharpe 2012

centering plugs 941

Cincinnati 2018-2021

cutters for 14.5-deg. pressure angle gears 804-805

draw-in bolt ends 941

indexing 1984-2025

lead of 1965

spindle noses 938-939, 942

tapers for 938

tool shanks 940

V-flange, NC 943

Miner's law of linear damage 204

Mineral oil 2340

Miniature end mills 796-797

Miniature screw threads 1764-1768

basic thread form 1764

design thread form 1764-1765

formulas 1764

hole sizes 1937

root flats 1768

tapping 1937

tolerances and size 1767

Miniature screws 1559

binding head 1559-1560

fillister head 1559, 1563

flat head 1559-1560

pan head 1559-1560, 1563

Minors of a matrix 131

Minutes into decimals of a degree 102, 104

Miscelaneous threads, aero-thread 1891

Mixed film lubrication 2334

Mixed numbers 9

Modal, CNC G-codes 1229

Module 2032

splines, metric 2177-2182

system gearing 2122-2125

diametral pitch 2124

formulas 2122, 2124

rules 2124

Modulus of

elasticity, E (Young's modulus) 201

for various materials 201

iron and steel 432

nickel-based alloy 309-310

nonferrous metals 512

of various materials 394

perforated metal 2521

plastics 390, 556, 560-561

spring materials 346-347

elasticity, plastics 554

polar section 210, 245-246

rupture

powdered metal alloys 393

wood 385-386

secant 561

shear, G (rigidity) 201

for various materials 201, 576

in angular deflection formula 211

nonferrous metals 512

spring materials 347

Mol 384

Mold dispensable patterns 1324

Molding

green sand 1314-1315

shell 1315

Molds, steels for permanent 455

Molecular weight 384

Molybdenum

gearing material 2148

high-speed steels

chemical composition 499

tool steels 446, 448-449, 451

steels, SAE 400

Moment and torque

in combined stresses 212

in simple stresses 210

unit conversion 2593-2594

Moment of a force 156, 162

Moments of inertia 233-249

angles, steel 2514-2516

built-up sections 234

channels, aluminum 2517

channels, steel 2513

circle 238

circular ring 239

cross-sections 235-244

ellipse 239

formulas for various sections 235-244

half circle 238

hollow circle 238

I or S shapes, steel 2512

I-beams, aluminum 2517

I-beams, steel 2508-2512

I-section 239

L-section 243

octagon 238

of complex areas 249

pipe 2370-2371

plane areas 233

polar 233, 245-249

cone, frustum 249

cylinder, hollow 247

ellipsoid 248

paraboloid 248

prism 247

pyramid 247

solid ring 248

sphere 247

polar

spherical sector and segment 248

torus 248

rectangles 236, 250

round shafts, table for 251-256

structural channels 2513, 2517

trapezoid 237

triangle 237

T-section 242

units conversion 2603

wide flange, steel 2508-2511

Z-section 244

Momentum 191-193

Monel metals, machining 1125

properties 547-548

Monotron for hardness testing 507

Morse

reamers for sockets 839

stub taper shanks 924

taper shank twist drill 869

tapers 924-935

Mortising wood 388

Motion

accelerated 184, 186-187

constant acceleration 182

constant velocity 182

force and work 186, 189

general formulas 182, 184

constant acceleration 182, 184

Newton

first law 186

second law 186

third law 186

on inclined plane 176, 186

rotary, formulas 184

uniformly accelerated 182

Motors, electric 2479

adjustable speed motors 2482

adjustable-voltage, shunt-wound 2483

alternating current 2483-2486

armature rotors 2493

ball or roller bearings 2492

brushes 2492

characteristics 2482-2491

classes of standards 2479

commutators 2492

compound-wound 2483-2484

constant speed motors 2482

current definitions 2479

DC motors 2490-2491

design letters 2479

direction of rotation 2481

frame sizes, standard 2479

high frequency induction 2485

horsepower requirements 2487

induction motor 2484

injurious operating conditions 2489

inspection schedule 2492-2493

insulating materials 2489

locked rotor current and torque ratings 2480-2481

lubrication, proper 2492

maintaining and repairing 2492-2493

maintenance 2492

mechanical condition 2492

monthly inspection 2492

mounting dimensions, standard 2479

multiple speed induction 2485

multispeed motor 2482

NEMA 2479-2481

standards for 2479-2480

polyphase AC motor 2484

polyphase wound-rotor 2480

pull up torque 2480, 2482

rotation, standard direction 2481

rotors and armatures 2492

selection 2487-2488

shunt-wound 2483

single-phase motors characteristics 2486

space limitations 2488

speed reducer type 2487

speed requirements 2487

squirrel cage induction 2483-2484

squirrel cage rotors 2493

synchronous motor 2484

temperature effects 2489

torque and inertia requirements 2487

torque definitions 2481

type, dc and ac 2482

types and characteristics for different applications 2490-2491

variable speed 2481-2482

weekly inspection 2492

windings 2492

wound rotor induction 2485

wound rotor type 2484

Mounted wheels and points 952-954

Mounting bearings 2295

Multiple or block indexing 2022-2023

Multiplication of matrix 129

Multiplying

decimal fractions 10

fraction and mixed numbers 9

numbers written in powers-of-ten notation 15

Music wire 306

Music wire, gages 2518

N

N-address, CNC programming 1229

Nails and spikes, standard 1706

Napthenic oil 2340

National Tube Co. 295

Nautical measure 2565

Neat resins 551

Negative and positive numbers 4

Negative functions of angles 105

NEMA standards for electric motors 2479-2481

Net present value 141

Neutral axis

sheet metal 1276

Newton's laws of motion 186

Newton's laws of motion 158

Newton-Raphson method 33

Newtons into pounds force 2593

Nickel alloys 547-548

applications 547-548

chemical composition 547-548

chromium steels, SAE strength 432

coefficient of expansion 378

density 378

elongation 392, 547-548

gearing material 2147-2148

hardness 392

machining 1125-1126

melting points 378

plating 1416, 1418

specific heat 378

tensile strength 392, 547-548

thermal conductivity 378

yield strength 392

Nitinol, machining 1125

Nitralloy steels 485

Nitriding 467, 485

high-speed steel tools 501

ion nitriding 485

Nitrogen, liquid temperature 630

Nodular cast iron 1310

Nomenclature

bevel gears 2086

gear teeth 2034

spur gears 2035

Nominal clearance 2160

Nominal vs effective interest rates 136

Nondestructive testing symbols 1390-1391

Nonferrous metals 512

machining 1123-1126

modulus of elasticity 512

modulus of shear 512

shear strength 512

strength 394, 512

tensile strength 512

yield strength 512

Normal

distribution curve 1215-1218

positional deviation 1215-1218

Normalizing 408

temperatures, alloy steel 490-491

Norton Company 1150, 1158-1164

Nose radius 738

carbide tools 750

single point tool 750

Number of nails and spikes in a pound 1706

Number of teeth 2032

Numbering systems

for aluminum alloys 533

for aluminum alloys, wrought 536

for metals and alloys 398, 400

for steel 398-401

Numbers

associative law 4

commutative law 4

distributive law 4

identity law 4

inverse law 4

positive and negative 4

powers-of-ten notation 14, 16

preferred series 638, 672

prime 19-28

progressions 36-37

Numerical control

accuracy, repeatability, and resolution 1215-1218

axis nomenclature 1260-1263

cutter compensation 758

insert holders for NC 758

insert radius compensation 758

part tolerance symbols

ANSI 1220-1223

compared to ISO 611

repeatability, accuracy, and resolution 1215-1218

tapping 1943

tool

compensation 758

nose radius compensation 758-760

total indicator reading 1262

V-flange tool shanks 943

Nut taps 903

Nuts

acorn 1456

ANSI, inch dimensions

flat jam 1453

hex 1446

hex flat 1453

hex slotted 1453, 1455

hex thick slotted 1454-1455

jam 1452

machine screw 1549

square 1446, 1455

T-type 1634

Unified 1452, 1455

ANSI, metric dimensions

heavy hex 1512

hex jam 1512

hex, styles 2 and 3 1508

metric hex flange nuts 1508, 1510

prevailing torque, hex 1511, 1513

slotted hex 1508, 1510

British Standard 1582

ISO metric 1536-1539

metric 1572, 1576, 1578, 1583

Unified 1584

Whitworth 1533, 1535, 1585, 1606

crown, low and high (SAE) 1456

friction coefficients 1431

high, SAE 1457

slotted, high hex (SAE) 1457

wing nuts 1697-1700

wrench clearances 1462

wrench openings 1462

Nylon

bearings 2266

properties 390

O

O-address, CNC programming 1229

Obtuse-angle triangles solution 70, 100-101

Octagon

area 71

moment of inertia 238

radius of gyration 238

section modulus 238

Offhand grinding 1199

Offset method of determining yield strength 201

Offsets

CNC milling 1237

Ohm's law 2603

Oil feeding and grooving of bearings 2230

Oilless bearings 2268-2269

Oils 2333

additive ingredients 2340

additives 2340

and compounds, machining 1113-1126

emulsifying or soluble 1114

mineral 1116-1117

sulfurized and chlorinated 1116-1117

application 2348

coating 1417

film thickness in machine parts 2336

film thickness values 2336

lubricating 2337

mineral 2340

synthetic 2342

temperature effects 2343

temperature oxidation effects 2343

tempering 479

Open end wrench clearances 1463

Operations on complex numbers 17

Orbit 1300

Order of performing arithmetic 5

O-ring 2501-2506

applications 2502, 2504

compounds 2505

diametral clearance 2504

flurocarbon 2505

gland depth 2502

groove dimensions and clearances 2501, 2504

hardness 2503

nitrile 2505

reciprocating seals 2502

ring materials 2506

silicon 2505

squeeze 2501

static seals 2502

surface finish in contact with 2503

tolerances 2504

washers, backup 2502

Oscillation, center and radius of 232

Ounces, avoirdupois, into grams 2587-2588

Out of roundness 703

Oval head machine screws 1555-1557

Overhead

machine-hour distribution 147

man-hour distribution 147

man-rate distribution 147

Oxidation effects on oil 2343

Oxygen gas in welding 1343, 1368

P

Pack hardening 485

Packing

in circles 87-90

in circles and rectangles 87-92

in rectangles 92

PAG 2342

Palladium, plating 1418

Pan head machine screws 1554

Pan head miniature screw 1560, 1563

PAO 2342

Paper, bonding 2496

Pappus or Guldinus rules 65

Parabola 53

area 73-74

center of gravity 225

constructing 64

directrix 53

focus 53

general equation 53

latus rectum 53

segment of area 74

vertex 53

Paraboloid

center of gravity 227

polar moment of inertia 248

radius of gyration 232

segment volume 86

volume 85

Parallel lines 41

Parallelogram

area 69

center of gravity 222

geometry of 57

of forces 160

radius of gyration 229

Parison 580

Parraffinic oil 2340

Passivation of copper 1411

Patterns for castings 1317

dispansable 1324

master mold 1324

materials 1317

metal 1318

shrinkage allowances 1318, 1324

varnish 1318

weight of casting from 1319

wood selection 1317-1318

Payback period 144

Pearlite 465, 469

Pearlitic malleable iron 1310

Pebi 2562

Pendulum 180-181

calculations 180

conical 180

formulas for 180

physical 180

simple and compound 180

torsional 180

types of 180

Percentage 7

Percussion, center of 232

Perforated metals, strength and stiffness of 2521

Peripheral speed, CNC spindle 1233

Permanent mold, casting process 1315

Permanickel, machining 1125

Permutation 18

Perpendicular lines 41

Petroleum oils, application 2598

Phenolic plastics 2266

Philadelphia carriage bolt thread 1893

Phonetic alphabet 2604

Phosphor-bronze, worm gearing 2150

Physical vapor deposition (PVD) 764

Piano wire, working stresses 315

at elevated temperatures 316-317

Piles, weight of 383

Pillow block bearings 2278

Pin method for checking

gear sizes 2126

allowance for backlash 2140

for involute splines 2176

wire diameters 2126, 2135

spur gear sizes 2136-2139

V-shaped grooves 699

Pinion, spur gear

enlarged to avoid undercut 2051

Pins

clevis 1653

cotter 1652, 1663, 1666

dowel 1652-1658

grooved 1662, 1666

metric dowel 1652, 1654

spring 1667-1668

straight 1657-1659

strength of taper 221

taper 1659-1662

Pintle chains 2451

Pipe and pipe fittings

British threads 1871-1872

columns 287-288

dryseal 1867-1870

measuring by wire method 1910

taper 1861

threads 1867-1870

heat loss from uncovered steam 374

internal thread in pipe couplings 1865

loads, table of 287-288

plastics

threads 577

reamers, taper 840

sealing joints 1636

taps, dimensions

Briggs and Whitworth 1942

internal dryseal 1869

power for driving 1942

threads

American National Standard 1861-1869

British Standard 1870-1872

designation and notation 1861

welding 1374

fill passes 1376

flux cored electrode 1377

fusion 1377

position 1375

flat 1375

horizontal 1375-1376

overhead 1375

vertical up and down 1376

procedure 1378

carbon steel 1378-1380

MIG 1378-1380

root 1378-1380

thick walled 1378-1380

root passes 1375

thin wall 1377

Pitch 2032

broach teeth 955-958

circle 2032

circular, of gears 2035

diameters, gears

circular pitch 2053

helical 2100

pin method of checking 2126

spur 2036, 2053

worms 2097

diameters, roller chain sprockets 2457-2458

diameters, thread

checking 1894

for tensile stress area 1435

metric, M profile 1795-1797

unified 1719-1759

wire sizes for measuring 1896

diameters, thread unified 1723

gear 2036

plane 2032

rivets 1635, 1639-1640

screw threads, measuring 1894

worm gearing 2096

worms 2096

Pitot tube 2586

Plain bearing (see Bearings: plain )

Plain milling cutters 786

Plain washers

inch 1469-1472

metric 1514

types 1514

Plane figures, areas and dimensions 69-80

Plane of rotation 2032

Planetary gearing 2116-2119

bevel gears 2116

compound drive 2116

direction of rotations 2116

Planetary thread milling 1964

Planing

estimating cutting speeds 1052

power required 1054-1058

speeds and feeds 1052

time 1052

tool grinding 740

wood 388

Planing insert holder 746-748

Plasticizers 552

Plastics 550-606

aging at elevated temperature 570

amorphous 551

anisotropy 555

application properties 553

assembly 596

assembly with fasteners 596

ASTM tests 553

beams 587

bearings 2277

anti-friction 2277

laminated, plain bearings 2266

sleeve 2266

bending stress 605

blow molding 580

bonding 592

brittleness 555

cellular 552

characteristics 550

chemical bonding 592

chemical resistance of 574

closed cell 552

coefficient of expansion 390

coefficient of friction 556

compressive strength 565

creep 557, 568

crystalline 551

density 390, 553

design

analysis 574

for assembly 592

for injection molding 578

stress 576

developing prototypes 601-602

drilling speeds and feeds 600

effects of temperature 569

elasticity 554, 561

electrical properties 571

conductivity 571

elongation 390

environmental effects 573

fasteners 596

fibers 552

fillets 590

flexural modulus 390

flow properties 591

gearing 603

accuracy 606

backlash 605

service factors 605

tooth form factors 604

hardness 390, 555

haze 554

heat dissipation factor 572

hetrogeneous 555

homogeneous 555

homopolymers 552

Hooke's law 554

impact resistance 591

inhomogeneous 555

injection mold design 584

injection molding 583

isotropy 555

izod impact 390

Izod test 555

LCP 551

Liquid-crystalline Polymers 551

load-bearing 587

machining 597

cutting off 599

drilling 599

molded 601

sawing thermoset cast 601

tapping 600

threading 600

turning 599

manufacturing 578

material 550-551

elastomers 551

thermoplastic 551

maximum temperature 390

mechanical fasteners 592

mechanical properties 574

effect of temperature on 569

milling 601

mixtures coploymers 552

modulus of elasticity 554, 560

mold flow 591

non newtonian 591

normal strain 560

notch sensitivity 555

open cell 552

parison 580

physical properties 553, 556

pipe threads 577

plasticity 554

polyurethanes 582

press fits 576

processing thermosets 580

proportional limit 561

PUR 582

region 201

reinforced 582

relaxation 568

resins 551

sawing, speeds and numbers of teeth 601

secant modulus 561

shear modulus of G 564

shear stress 562

sheet thermoforming 580

shrinkage 554

snap-fit 592

specific gravity 390, 553

sprue 583

stiffeness 578

stress 558

normal 559

stress relaxation 568

stresses and deflections 587

structural analysis 574

safety factors 574

structures 551

temperature index 570

tensile impact 569

tensile modulus 390

thermal properties 569

thermal stresses 577

thermoplastic 550

thermosetting 550

toughness 555

transparency 554

ultimate strength 561

undercuts 590

viscoelastic 556

wall thickness 586

water absorption 554

welding 594

dielectric 596

electromagnetic 596

hot gas 595

induction 596

spin 595

vibration 595

yield point 554, 561

Plates

flat, strength and deflection of 289-291

shells and cylinders, strength of 289-295

Plating 1413-1420

chromium 1372

magnesium anodic treatment 1415

magnesium, coating 1415

phosphate coating 1418-1419

surface coatings 1413

zinc 1420

Plunge angle 746

Poise 2338, 2602

Poisson's ratio 201

flat plates 289

for various materials 201, 291, 394

perforated metal 2521

plastics 561

Polar coordinates 42

Polar moment of inertia 233, 245-249, 251-256

cone 249

frustum 249

cylinder, hollow 247

ellipsoid 248

formulas 247-249

masses 233

paraboloid 248

plane areas 233

prism 247

pyramid 247

solid ring 248

spherical sector 248

spherical segment 248

torus 248

Polar section modulus 245-246, 251-256

Polishers, spindles for portable 950

Polishing and buffing 1406

abrasives 1406, 1409

operations 1409

speeds 1409

wheels, material 1406

Polyalkylene glycols 2342

Poly-alph-olefins 2342

Polygon

area 71, 75

forces 161

formulas and table 75

length of side 75

radius of circumscribed circle 75

radius of inscribed circle 71, 75

Polygon shafts 2187

connections 2187

dimensions of 2187

manufacturing 2188

strength of connections 2188

three- and four-sided designs 2187

Polyol-Esters 2343

Polyphase motors 2481, 2484

Polyurethane plastics 2505

Polyurethanes 582

Porosity, pressure die castings 1319

Porous bearings 2266

Portable grinding 1199

safety 1180

Portable tools

hexagonal chucks for 951

spindles and drives for 948-951

Positional deviation, mean 1215-1218

Positioning accuracy 1215-1218

Positive and negative numbers 4

Positive clutches 2364

Positive functions of angles 105

Potential energy 188-189

Poundal 2594

Pounds

force 157-158

force into newtons 2593

mass 158

per cubic foot into kilograms per cubic meter 2589

per cubic inch into grams per cubic centimeter 2589

per square foot into kilograms per square meter 2591

per square inch into kilograms per square centimeter 2591

per square inch into kilopascals 2591

Powder metallurgy 1328

briquetting tools 1328

design 1328

limiting factors 1328

metal process 1328

Powdered metal alloys

copper base 393

density 393

elongation 393

hardness 393

iron base 393

tungsten base 393

Powdered metal bearings 2266

Power

calculating by dynamometer 2370

consumption spade drilling 1050

cutting tool 1056

feed factors 1055

for driving pipe taps 1943

general formulas 193

heat equivalents 2594

in mechanics 156

motor 1056

required for machining 1054-1062

roots of numbers 14

transmission

belting 2401-2450

by friction wheels 2371

capacity 2151, 2360

chain 2461-2465

disc clutch 2360

friction wheels 2370-2372

units conversion 2597

Power brush

brush finishing 1405-1408

brush uses 1405

deburring 1405

tooth profile of gears 1405

Power constant

alloy steels 1056

high temperature alloys 1055

nonferrous metals 1055

plain carbon steels 1056

stainless steel 1055

tool steels 1055

wrought steels 1056

Power of ten notation 14, 16

expressing numbers in 15

Power transmission

roller chain 2451-2474

Precipitation

hardening 462

heat-treatment 541

Precision

bolts and screws, British 1533-1534, 1540

gage blocks 706

investment casting 1323

Preferred

basic sizes, ANSI Standard 672

hole basis metric fits, ANSI Standard 651, 655

metric sizes

ANSI Standard 647, 672

British Standard 672

numbers, ANSI Standard 671

numbers, British Standard 672

roughness average values (Ra) 719

roughness values and roughness grades 727

series for tolerances and allowances 634

series maximum waviness height values 720

shaft basis metric fits, ANSI Standard 650, 656-659

thicknesses for

flat metal products, metric 2523

uncoated metals and alloys 2522

Preload measurements 1432

Preload relaxation 1432

Preparatory command, CNC 1229

Present value and discount 137

Press lubrication 1288

Pressure

angle 2033

angle, cams 2198

composite checking of fine-pitch gears 2074

cylinders and tubes, collapsing pressure 294-295

definition and units for 159-160

effect on wood property 386

Lame's formula for internal 292

spherical shells, strength to resist internal 292

tight joints 1865

tube, collapsing pressure 295

unit conversion 2590-2591

Prime numbers and factors 19-28

Principle reference planes 2033

Prism

polar moment of inertia 247

volume 81

volume formula 65

Prismoidal formula for volume 65

Processing thermosets 580

Production rate 1078

Profile checking, gearing 2063

Progression

arithmetical 36-37

geometrical 36-38

Prony brake dynamometer 2370-2371

Properties

mechanical 200-201, 394

compressive 202

definitions 200

fatigue 202

modulus of elasticity values 201

perforated metal 2521

Poisson's ratio values 201

shear 202

strength 394-395, 422-423

thermal 373-374, 395

yield point values 201

of materials

aluminum alloys 529

copper alloys 512

copper-zinc-tin alloys 394

magnesium alloys 544-546

metals 394

nickel alloys 547-548

nonferrous alloys 512

plastics 390

powdered metal alloys 393

specific gravity 382

spring wire 395

standard steels 396, 418, 422-423

titanium alloys 547, 549

tool steels 448, 459

wood 387

strength effect of heat or temperature 569

Proportion 5-7

compound 5

inverse 6-7

simple 6

Proportional limit 200

plastics 561

Protractor, reading vernier scale on 674

Providing backlash 2071

PTFE plastics 2266, 2499

Pulley

speeds, rpm into feet per minute 986-991

taps 903

Pulleys and belts

and belt drives 177-178

and wheels in mechanics 177-178

arc of contact correction factors 2409

center distances, V-belt 2401

center to center distance 2398

cross section correction factors 2408

diameter and speeds 2399

diameter in compound drives 2399

differential 178

flat belt 2398, 2401

length correction factors 2409

length of belt traversing three pulleys 2400

lengths of open and crossed belts 2398

lengths of V-belt 2404

rules for calculating diameters and speeds 2398

sheave size 2407

speed in compound drive 2400

speed ratio correction factors 2408

speeds, rpm into feet per minute 1944

V-belt 2398

wrap angles 2398

Pull-up torque 2480

Punching 1267

PUR 582

Pyramid

center of gravity 226

frustum center of gravity 226

polar moment of inertia 247

volume 81

volume of frustum 82

Q

Quadrant 105

Quadratic equations 31

Quenching 407

baths 477

tanks for 476

high speed steel 498

interrupted 476-477

media 466

tungsten 498

air cooling 498

salt bath 498

R

Rack 2033

gear 2037

milling, indexing 2025

spline, metric 2182

Radian per second conversion from rpm 184

Radians equivalent to degrees 102, 104

Radius

of arc, checking 699-700

of curvature 2204

of gyration 229, 232

angles, steel 2514-2516

bar of small diameter 229

bar, small diameter 229

channels, aluminum 2517

channels, steel 2513

of gyration

circle 238

circular disk, thin 230

circular ring 239

circular ring, thin flat 230

cone 231

cone, frustum 231

cylinder 230

cylinder, hollow 231

ellipse 239

ellipsoid 232

flat plate, thin 229

half circle 238

hexagon 237

hollow circle 238

hollow cylinder, thin 231

hollow sphere 232

I-beams 2508-2511

I-beams, aluminum 2517

I-section 239

L-section 243

octagon 238

paraboloid 232

parallelepiped 230

parallelogram 229

prism, rectangular 231

rectangle 236

ring 229

S- or W-shape, steel 2512

sphere 232

sphere, hollow 232

spherical shell, thin 232

structural angles 2514-2516

thin flat plate 229

thin spherical shell 232

trapezoid 237

triangle 237

T-section 242

various cross-sections 235-244

wide flange, steel 2508-2511

Z-section 244

of oscillation 232

Rails

size to carry given load 278

strength of 278

Rake angles 737

checking milling cutter 814

single-point cutting tools

lead angles 737

turning tool 734

Rank of a matrix 132

Rankine's formulas for columns 282, 284

Rankine, temperature 2599

Rasps 965

aluminum 965

Ratchet gearing 2120-2121

frictional 2121

multiple pawl 2121

pitch of wheel teeth 2121

reversing 2121

shape of wheel teeth 2121

types 2120

Rate of return (interest) 136-137, 144

Ratio 5-7

and proportion 5-7

compound 5

contact, in gearing 2056-2061

epicyclic gearing 2116-2119

fractional, change gears for 1948

gear for differential indexing 2009

geometrical 36-38

inverse or reciprocal 5

mean proportional 6

of volumes 86

Poisson's 201

slenderness, columns 282

Ream, paper 2603

Reamer

bull center 839

center 839

Reamers 820-841

ANSI Standard 820-841

arbors for shell 838

Brown & Sharpe taper socket 840

center and countersink 827

centers for 827

chucking 822, 825, 829, 834-835

straight flutes 834-835

definition 823

die-maker's 841

drills for taper pin 1660-1662

driving slots and lugs 833

expansion chucking 830

expansion hand 832

finishing 839

fluting cutters 821-822

dimension 822

fluting to obtain negative rake 820

formed 822

hand 821, 831-832

squared shank 832

straight and helical flutes 831-832

helical flutes 838

jobbers 833

letter sizes 835

machine countersinks 828

morse taper socket 839

negative front rake 820

pipe 840

rose chucking 822, 836

straight and helical flutes 836

shell 833, 837

straight and helical flutes 829, 837

straight flutes 833-834

straight shank 828

stub screw machine 835, 838

taper pin 841

taper pin reamers, drills for 1659, 1662

taper pipe 840

taper shank 829

taper, milling teeth 809

terms applying to 823

threaded end 821

dimension 821

tooth-rest position for grinding clearance 823

wire gage sizes 834

Reaming

automatic screw machines 1102

cutting speeds for

copper alloys 1042

ferrous cast metals 1038-1039

light metals 1040

stainless steels 1037

tool steels 1036

difficulties 828

bellmouth holes 828

oversize holes 828

poor finish 829

taper pin 1661

Rearrangement of terms in formulas 29

Recalescence point in steel hardening 461, 470

Recessing tools, speeds 1102

Reciprocals of numbers 5, 8

Rectangle

area 69

moment of inertia 236

radius of gyration 236

section modulus 236

table of section moduli 251

Rectangular

coordinates 42

cylindrical coordinates 44

drawing 1287

spherical coordinates, relationship 43

Rectangular keys 2373

Refrigeration of steel 504

Reinforced plastics 582

Relative density 381

Relief and rake angles

for single-point cutting tools 736, 1945

indicator drop method of checking 814

Relief angles

for single-point cutting tools 736

turning tool 734

Repeatability, accuracy, and resolution 1215

Replacement-gear dimensions 2154

Resinoid bonded wheels 971-972, 1148

thread grinding 1958

Resins 551

Resistance brazing 1336

Retaining rings 1669

ANSI Standard 1669-1677

centrifugal capacity 1693

compressed in bore 1675

diameter tolerances 1687-1688

dimensions in inches 1686, 1689

expanded over shaft 1673

external dimensions 1690, 1693

external series 1669-1670

external spiral 1680, 1684

failure of 1687, 1694

groove bottom radii 1670

groove design and machining 1691-1692, 1695

groove diameter 1670

groove diameter tolerances 1688

groove failure 1694

groove width 1670

groove width tolerances 1688

industrial 1692

internal 1693

internal spiral 1678, 1682

load capacity 1685

material 1685

metric performance data 1673

ring free diameter 1670

rotation between parts 1694

seated in groove 1673, 1675, 1677-1678

selection 1669

self locking dimensions 1692

self locking external and internal 1693

self locking inch series 1693

self locking types 1692

spiral 1680

standards 1693-1696

tapered 1669-1670

thickness 1681, 1685

thickness tolerances 1681, 1685, 1687-1688

thrust load capacities 1691

thrust load safety factors 1690

width capacity 1687

Retarded motion 182

Retention knobs, V-flange tool shanks 943

Reyn 2338, 2602

Rhodium plating 1419

Right-angle triangles solution 70, 97-99

Rigidity

modulus of (shear) 201

spring materials 345-347

Ring

area and volume 65

radius of gyration 229

solid

polar moment of inertia 248

stresses in loaded 220-221

Rivet

allowable stresses 1637

ANSI Standard 1640-1642

belt 1642

British Standard 1648, 1651

cold forged 1648

hot forged 1648

lengths 1648

snap head 1648

universal head 1648

button head 1640, 1642

cone head 1640

cooper's 1642

countersunk 1640, 1648

diameters for given plate thicknesses 1635

dimension countersunk head 1651

dimension snap head 1651

excess length to form head 1640

flat head 1642, 1648

hold-on or dolly bar sets 1640

large rivets, standard 1640

material 1636

mushroom head 1648

pan head 1640, 1642

pitch 1635, 1639-1640

sets, dimensions of impressions in 1640

shearing strength 1639-1640

small rivets, standard 1640-1642

spacing 1635

steel 1636

strength 1636

tinner's 1642

truss 1642

types 1635

Riveted joints 1635-1640

allowable stresses 1636

double and triple 1639

efficiency 1636-1637

failure 1636

holes for 1635

joint failure 1636

joint strength 1636-1637

rivet length for forming heads 1640

rivet materials 1636

strength 1637

types of riveted joints 1635

working strength 1636

Rockwell hardness

conversion to Brinell hardness 508-509

number 510

scales 506

Rod gages 2518

Roebling wire gage 2518

Rolled threads, electric socket and lamp base 1885

Roller bearing (see Bearings: roller )

Roller chain, double pitch 2452

Rolling

contact bearings 2270-2324

friction resistance 174

Rolling screw threads 1953-1957

cylindrical die machines 1953

diameter of blank 1954

diameter of threading roll 1955

flat die machines 1953

in automatic screw machines 1954

shapes and kind of thread 1955

speeds, and feeds 1956

steels for 1954

Root diameter gearing 2033

Roots

and powers of numbers 14

finding square and cube 14

Rose chucking reamers 822

fractional sizes 836

Rotary file or burs 965

Rotary motion formulas 184

Roughness

control of 709

cutoff 719

height values 711-712

parameters

rules for determining 727

rules for measurement of 727

symbols indicating degree of 709-712

Roughness values-grades, surface finish 727

Round head machine screws 1558

Royal Microscopical Society thread 1887-1888, 1890

Rpm

conversion to radian per second 184

for various cutting speeds and diameters, inch units 988-991

metric units 990-991

for various grinding speeds and diameters 1181

Rubber

bearings 2267

bonded grinding wheels 1148

bonding 2495

turning 1052

Rupture strength

copper-base powdered alloys 393

iron-base powdered alloys 393

tungsten-base powdered alloys 393

S

SAE Standards

babbitt metals 2264

bearing metals 2264

crown or acorn nuts 1456

die casting alloys 1320

high nuts 1457

taper shaft ends 2395

V-belts 2439

Woodruff keyseat cutters 808

SAE steels

basic numbering system 398

compositions 398, 400, 404-405

heat treatments for 490

Safe speeds grinding wheels 1179-1181

Safety

factors of 205, 2079

flange couplings 2356

Salt baths for heat treating 474

Sand blast cleaning 1317

Sanders, spindles for portable 950

Sanding wood 388

Sandstone and limestone, strength 394

Saw tooth clutches 2366

Saws

band 1108-1113

circular, arbors for 948

metal-cutting, speeds 1052

metal-slitting 789

sharpening files 963

slitting 789

Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) 2338

Scalar and vector quantities 160

Scleroscope 506

Screw machines

automatic 1101-1106

automatic box-tools 1102

drilling speeds and feeds 1102

drills 848, 855

forming tools with rake 772-777

knurling 1101-1102

reaming speeds and feeds 1102

speeds and feeds 1102-1103

stock required for given production 1106

threading cams 1101

Screw thread insert taps 1531

Screw thread Inserts

chemical composition 1523

compatibility 1519

dimensions 1519

hardness 1531

helical coil 1519

helical coil insert 1520

insert length data 1523-1528

inspection 1523

length selection 1530-1531

material strength 1530

tapped hole 1519

taps 1531

threaded hole data 1521-1522

tolerance classes 1519

types 1519

Screws

and bolts 1445

angularity and eccentricity 1541

ANSI head recesses 1610

breaking load 1444

British Standard

BSF 1585

inch 1532-1535, 1572, 1600-1606

metric 1540, 1572-1581, 1600-1605

Unified 1582, 1584

Whitworth 1532, 1535, 1585, 1606

cap 1449, 1586-1591

cap, metric 1489

drive 1607, 1622

force for turning 178

form 1541

grade markings for steel 1441-1442

head recesses 1610

heavy hex 1449

hex cap 1446

inserts 1622

jig and fixture

button head 1604

heavy hex 1449

hex 1446

lag screw 1450-1451

metric 1493

length of engagement 1443

length of thread 1541

mechanical principle of 178

metric

British Standard 1581

cap 1489

diameters 1491

flange 1495-1496

formed 1490

heavy hex 1491

ISO 1537

reduced body diameter 1492

shoulder

socket head 1494

socket 1600

miniature 1559

self-threading 1607-1631

set 1593-1606

shoulder 1592

shoulder, metric 1494

sockets for 1595

sockets metric series 1602

strength of 1442

stress areas 1435, 1443

tap drills 1934-1942

tap marking symbols 884

thumb 1701, 1704-1705

Unified Standard 1445, 1584

wing 1701

wood 1707

worm threads 2096-2099

Sealants 2498

anaerobic pipe 2500

gasket materials 2499

pipe joining 2498

silicone rubber gasketing 2499

tapered pipe threading 2499

types 2498

Sealing bearings 2224-2226

Seasoning steel, sub zero 505

Secant 94

Secant modulus (plastics) 561

Section lining, standard for drawings 610

Section modulus

angles 2514-2516

circle 238

circular ring 239

ellipse 239

for torsion 280

formulas for various sections 235-244

half circle 238

hexagon 237

hollow circle 238

I-beams 2508-2512

I-section 239

L-section 243

octagon 238

polar 245-246, 251-256

rectangle 236

rectangles, table for 250-251

round shafts, table for 251-256

structural shapes

angles, steel 2516

channels, aluminum 2517

I-beams or S-shapes

aluminum 2517

steel 2512

wide flange, steel 2508-2511

steel 2513

trapezoid 237

triangle 237

T-section 242

units conversion 2603

Z-section 244

Segment, circular 72, 76-78

area 45, 72, 77-78

height for given angle and radius 72, 76-78

Self alignment roller bearings

symbols 2273

Self locking torque 1529

Self-threading screws 1607-1631

countersink heads 1607

cross recesses 1610

designations 1608

drill size 1618

drilled hole sizes 1616

drive type 1607-1608

extruded hole sizes 1616

fillister head 1608

head cross recesses 1610

hex head 1608

hex washer head 1608

hole sizes 1615, 1618

inch, metric 1622

metallic drive 1608

metals

brass sheet metal 1618

monel steel 1618

stainless steel 1618

steel 1618

metric 1622-1631

clearance holes 1627

cutting tapping 1624

designations 1623-1624

drilled hole sizes 1628, 1630

extruded hole sizes 1627

head types 1622-1623

heat treatment 1626

hole sizes for steel 1627-1631

hole sizes for tapping 1627

material 1626

punched hole size for steel 1628, 1630

metric

recommended lengths 1625

tapping 1627

thread and point types 1623

thread cutting types 1622-1626

tapping 1624

thread forming 1624

tapping 1628-1629

types 1622-1625

thread tapping

in asbestos 1629

in cast metals 1630-1631

in plastics 1629, 1631

in plywoods 1629

in sheet metal 1630

pan head 1608

round head 1607

self-tapping inserts 1622

sheet metal hole sizes 1618

slotted pan head 1608

steel thread cutting 1619

thread and point

dimensions 1611-1614

types 1609-1610

thread cutting 1614

sheet metals 1618

tapping 1610

types 1607, 1610, 1612

thread forming 1611-1612, 1615-1616

types 1609-1610

torsional strength requirements 1622

truss head 1608

types of 1607

Sellers screw thread 1893

Sensitivity factor, gear material 2079

Series, infinite 34, 109

Set-screws

British Standard

metric 1600-1606

Whitworth 1606

cone point 1593-1605

cup point 1593-1605

dog point 1593-1605

flat point 1593-1605

headless 1593

hexagon and spline 1594

hexagon socket 1600, 1603, 1605

hexagon socket type 1605

holding power 1605

oval point 1593

spline socket type 1599

square head type 1596-1597, 1606

Sevolute functions 109

Shaft alignment 2526-2554

dial indicators 2527-2536

indicator formats 2537-2554

procedure 2532

rim and face method 2527, 2533, 2537-2554

soft legs 2529

tolerance guide 2526

Shaft conditions

checking 701

out of roundness 705

no. of lobes 705

V-block angles 705

out-of-roundness, lobing 703

Shafts 296-304

allowances and tolerances for fits 627

British Standard for fits 661-670

brittle materials, formulas for 302

checking for various conditions of 701-705

critical speeds of 303

deflection, linear 299

deflection, torsional 298-299

effect of keyways on strength 302

factor of safety 297, 302

hollow 304

horsepower transmitted by 296-299

linear deflection 299

maximum allowable working stress 302

moment of inertia, polar 245-246, 251-256

polygon type connections 2187

round, section moduli 251-256

steel, diameters of 300

strength 296-298

taper ends, SAE Standard 2395

torsional

deflection 298-299

strength 296-298

hollow vs. solid 304

transmission, design of 300-302

Shanks taper 924-935

Shapes

of grinding wheels 1150-1158

of mounted wheels and points 952-954

Shaping wood 388

Shaping, speeds and feeds 1052

Sharp V-thread 1712

Sharpening

carbide tools 971-973

circular saws 963

diamond wheels for 972

drills 969-971

milling cutters 808-809, 812-813

Shaving sheet metal 1275

Shear

formulas for 210

modulus 201

of G spring materials 345-347

of various materials 201, 394

properties 202

spring design 347

stress 200, 211

combined with tension or compression 212

in beams 212-215

Shear strength

cast iron 432

magnesium alloys 546

nonferrous metals 512

rivets 1639-1640

steels 432

wood 386

wrought iron 432

Shear tooth files 965

Sheaves

for V-belt drives 2403

for wire rope 350

Sheet metal 1267

allowances 1276

and wire gages 2522-2523

bend radii 1276

bending 1267, 1275

bending allowances 1285

formula 1277

blanking 1267-1268

clearance 1270

clearances 1268

design considerations 1267

die opening profile 1271

drawing 1267, 1282

edging process 1290

fine blanking 1273

joining process 1290

angle frame 1293

button punch snap lock 1291

clinch bar slip and angle 1293

clinch type flanged connections 1294

corner standing seam 1291

double flanges and cleats 1294

double seam 1291

flange 1292

flange and flange corner 1291

flanged duct connections 1293

flanged end and angle 1293

flat drive slip 1292

flat S slip 1292

flush lap 1290

formed flanges 1293

groove seam 1291

hem 1292

hemmed S slip 1293

pittsburg 1292

plain lap 1290

raw and flange corner 1290

slide corner 1291

standing drive slip 1292

standing seam 1291

joints 1290

neutral axis 1276

punching 1267-1268

screws 1607

shaving 1275

springback 1278

stock allowances 1279-1281

stripper force 1272

work and force 1272

Sheet sizes for drawings 608

Sheet steel

bending 1276-1277

Sheet thermoforming 580

Shell

blanks, diameters 1284

mills 791

molding 1315

plates and cylinders, strength 289-295

reamers 837

Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) 1354-1357

Shielding gases 1342

Shipping measure 2582

Shock-resisting

tool steels 453

chemical composition 455

heat treatment 455

Shocks, stresses in springs 280

stresses produced by 280

Shore's scleroscope 506, 508-509

Shoulder screws 1592

Shrinkage allowance, patterns 1318

Shrinkage fits 630, 637-638, 645

allowances 630-632

SI system units

in strength of materials calculations 200, 210-212, 215, 218-221, 229, 233-234, 257, 270, 274-275, 277-278, 280-281, 283, 290-294, 297-299, 301-303

metric 158

use of in mechanics 156-160

SI, binary prefixes 2562

Side cutting edge 738

Side milling cutters 787

Sigma (standard deviation) 1216-1217

Significance of accuracy 1215-1218

Signs and abbreviations

mathematical 2558

scientific and engineering 2556-2559

Signs of trigonometric functions 95

Silicon carbide grinding wheels 971-972

Silicone 2343

Silver

bearing material 2265

brazing filler alloys 1331

plating 1419

Simple

indexing 2012-2017

proportion 6

stresses 210-211

Simpson's rule 66

Simultaneous equations 132

Sine bar

checking angle 678

checking taper per foot 679

checking templets 679

constants 681-687

measuring angle of templet 678

settling to a given angle 678

settling10- inch to an angle 679

types of 677

use of 677-687

Sine, law of 95

Single tooth contact 2032

Single-angle milling cutters 790, 796-797

Single-point cutting tools 733-756, 875-876

angle tolerances 756

carbide tips and inserts for 748-756

chipbreakers 739-740

definitions and terms 733-736

end cutting edge angles 738

indexable inserts 740-742

insert toolholders 740-748, 758-760

lead angles 738

nose radius 738, 755

numerical control tool compensation 758-760

planing tools 740

rake angles 737

relief angles 736

relief angles for thread cutting 1945

side cutting edge angle 738

tip overhang 749-750

tool contour 733

tool holders, indexable inserts 740-748

Singularity of a matrix 132

Sinking funds 138

Sintered

carbide tools

ANSI Standard 748-756

tool materials 980-982

gear materials 2148

metal bearings 2266

Sixty (60)-degree stub threads 1847

Size factor cover 2079

Sizes of sawn lumber 388

Slate cutting speed for 1052

Sleeve bearings 2230

Sleeves, Morse taper 933

Slenderness ratio, columns 282-283

Slides, measuring 695, 699

Slipping clutches, couplings 2363

Slitting saws, metal 789

Slope of a line 40

Slots for T-bolts, ANSI Standard 1632

Slug 157

S-N diagrams 202, 204

Socket

ANSI hexagon and spline 1595

head, screw type

British Standard metric 1600

cap 1588-1591, 1601

drill and counterbore sizes for 1589

keys and bits for 1598

set 1605

shoulder 1592

metric socket head 1494

reamers, Morse taper 839

taper shank 924-935

threads for electric 1885

wrench clearances 1464, 1466

Solders and soldering 1329, 1331

alloys for 1329

aluminum 1329

fluxes 1329

forms 1329

magnesium 1331

methods 1329-1331

stainless steel 1331

ultrasonic fluxless 1331

Solidification temperature 630

Solids, volumes and dimensions 81-86

Soluble oils for machining operations 1114

Solution heat treatment 462

Sorbite 479

Space cutters, roller chain sprockets 2470-2471

Spacing holes on jig borer 707

Spade drills and drilling

blades 1046-1047

drilling 1047, 1049

feed rates for 1048-1049

geometry of 1045-1049

power consumption and thrust 1050-1051

Spandrel

area 73

center of gravity 224

Spark out time 1133

Spark plug

threads 1884

dimensions 1884

hole in cylinder head 1884

Spatter, (welding) 1363

Specific gravity 381

conversion 382

gases 381

liquids 381-382

of various metals 381

plastics 390

Specific heat 373-374

aluminum 377

copper alloys 377

gasses 374

Speed reducers, motors, built-in 2487

Speeds

calculating cutting speeds 986-991

critical, of rotating shafts 303

pulleys, rules for calculating 2398

rpm for different diameters and cutting speeds 986-991

Speeds and feeds, machining 979-1044

abrasive belt grinding 1200

bandsawing 1110-1113

CBN grinding wheels 1165

cutting 601, 984, 986, 1041, 1048, 1101-1113

drilling 1102

diameters and rpm 987

drilling

feeds for spade drills 1048-1049

end milling 1010

face milling 1010

form-turning 1102, 1118

general 1041, 1101-1102

grinding wheels

maximum peripheral speeds 1180

truing and dressing 1168-1169

wheel and work speeds 1960

grinding with diamond wheels 1177

honing 1200-1205

milling 992

nonferrous metals 1123-1126

reaming 1041, 1102

reaming and threading 992

rotary files and burs 966

sawing

band 1110-1113

circular 1052

shaping 1052

slit and slot milling 1010, 1013-1028

superalloys 1009

surface grinding 1196-1198

tables, how to use 992-995

tapping and thread cutting 1031-1040, 1042-1044, 1102, 1921-1922

thread rolling 1956-1957

titanium and alloys 1008

tool life 983-995

adjusting 1005-1006, 1010, 1013, 1029

tool steels

drilling reaming, and threading 1036

milling 1019-1020

turning 1001

turning 992, 996-1010

carbon and alloy steels 997-1000

copper alloys 1007

ferrous cast metals 1003-1004

hard-to-machine materials 1009

light metals 1008

speeds and feeds 996-1010, 1102

stainless steels 1002

superalloys 1009

titanium 1008

tool steels 1001

Sphere

hollow

center of gravity 227

radius of gyration 232

polar moment of inertia 247

radius of gyration 232

surface area 84

volume 84

Spherical

and rectangular coordinates, relationship 43

coordinates 43

sector

sector

center of gravity 227

polar moment of inertia 248

volume 84

segment

center of gravity 227

polar moment of inertia 248

volume 84

shell, thin 232

shells, strength to resist internal pressure 292-294

surface center of gravity 224

wedge volume 85

zone volume 85

Spheroidal graphite iron 432, 1310

Spheroidize, annealizing 408

Spheroidizing 408, 483

Spikes and nails, standard 1706

Spindle

for portable tools 948-951

noses 938-943

Spiral bevel gears 2030, 2083-2084

tooth contact 2083

Spline keys and bits 1598

Splines 2160

application factors 2172

comparison of symbols 2178

data and reference dimensions 2170

dimensions, formula 2186

fatigue-life factors for 2173

fittings 2184-2186

fittings, torque capacity 2186

for large misalignments 2174

formulas for SAE standard 2186

involute 2157-2182

(see also Involute splines )

involute, socket keys and bits 1598

machining tolerances and variations 2181

milling cutter 812

SAE standard splined fittings 2185-2186

terms, symbols, and drawing data 2168

variations 2166

Spray transfer (welding) 1341

Spraying process, flame (metal) 1421

Spring 305-350

arbor diameters for 350

Belleville 345, 351-365

clock 345

compression, formulas for 318-319

coned 351-365

conical compression 345

constant force 345

copper-base spring alloys 308-309

deflections for

compression 322-325

extension 322-325

torsion 340-343

design data 316-350

disc 351-365

contact surfaces 352, 355

disc

forces and stresses 355

group classes 351

materials 352

nomenclature 351

stacking 353

stress 355

elevated temperature stresses 315-316

endurance limit for spring materials 315-316

extension 321-330

extension spring design 328-330

failure in 349

force, disc 355

heat treatment of 345-347

helical compression spring design 317-321

helical, shock stresses produced in 280

high-carbon spring steels 306

index 316

materials 306-310

miscellaneous 345

moduli of elasticity 345

motor 345

music wire arbor diameters 350

nickel-base spring alloys 308-310

pins 1667-1668

shock stresses produced in helical 280

spiral 345

stainless spring steels 307-308

steels for 306-308

stresses 316-317

produced by shocks 280

tolerances

compression and extension 329-332

for torsion 338-345

torsion

bars 344

design 332-338

modulus 345-347

volute 344-345

wire

diameters for 306

maximum working temperature 309

tensile strength 395

Spring pins

coiled type 1668

designation 1667

lengths and sizes 1667

materials 1667

slotted type 1667

Spring washers

double coil rectangular section 1545

single coil square section 1546

Springback, sheet metal 1278

Sprockets

chain transmission 2451

idler 2467

Spur gearing 2034

addendum modifications 2078

AGMA tolerances for fine pitch gears 2073

American National Standard tooth forms 2036, 2040

angular backlash 2074

backlash 2068-2074, 2140

backlash range 2069

basic dimensions 2042

blanks for fine pitch gears 2065

British Standard 2077

bronze and brass gears 2148

caliper measurement of tooth 2052

center distance 2060

variable 2042, 2044, 2046

center distance for enlarged pinion 2059

checking gear size 2126

chordal

addendum 2049-2050, 2052

measurement 2143

thickness 2047, 2049-2050, 2052

circular

pitch system 2035, 2053

thickness 2047

given outside diameter 2046

composite error inspection 2074

contact

diameter 2060

lowest point of single tooth 2060-2064

ratio 2060-2061

data on drawings 2068

diameters for hobbing, preshaving, and shaping 2043

diametral pitch shown full size 2034

diametral pitch system 2034-2035

dimensions and formulas 2036

drawing data 2068

enlarged pinions 2051, 2109-2112

external 2030

Fellows stub tooth systems 2042

fine-pitch 2040, 2065

finishing gear milling cutters 2055

formulas for basic dimensions 2162

full-depth, teeth 2036, 2047

gear milling cutters, series of

metric module 2053

gear tooth parts 2037-2042

checking 2126

German standard tooth form 2122

hob tip radius, maximum 2061

interference, avoiding 2051, 2053

internal 2030, 2075

internal arc thickness 2075

internal gear and pinion sizes 2075

internal gears rule 2076

involute curve properties 2035

lowest point of single tooth contact 2061

measurement of tooth with caliper 2052

measurement over pins 2126

measurement over wires 2136-2139

mesh with enlarged pinion 2059

milling cutters 2053

metric module 2053

minimum number of teeth 2059

module system 2122-2125

nonmetallic 603, 2150

outside and root diameters 2043, 2053

pinion arc thickness 2075

pitch diameters, tabulated 2053

profile checker settings 2063

reduced gear 2051

replacement gear dimensions 2154

root and outside diameters 2043, 2053

specifications 2066

to avoid undercutting by hob 2059

tooth

contact of highest point 2062

dimensions 2037-2042

forms 2036

measurements over wires 2136-2139

proportions 2040

thickness measurement 2046

true involute form (TIF) diameter 2062

undercut, limit for hobbed gears 2062

Square

area 69

circles of area equal to 79

distances across corners 80

of wire diameters 348

prism volume 81

recesses, for machine screws

for self-tapping screws 1610

roots of numbers 14

Square and rectangular parallel keys 2374

Square keys 2373

Square rectangular keys and keyways 2373

Square thread 1849

Squeeze casting 1315

Squirrel cage induction motors 2480

S-shapes, structural steel 2512

moment of inertia 2512

radius of gyration 2512

section modulus 2512

weight per foot 2512

Stabilizing gages 503

Stacking disc springs 353

Stainless steels 397, 415, 418

application 418-419

characteristics and applications 415

chemical compositions 406-407

coefficient of expansion 378

compositions 406-407, 418-419

cutting, flame 1367-1368

density 378

electrodes (welding) current to use with 1362

elongation 392, 430-431

hardness 392

heat treatments 494-495

mechanical properties 430-431

melting points 378

properties 418-419

soldering 1331

ultrasonic 1331

specific heat 378

speeds

for drilling, reaming, and threading 1037

for milling 1020-1021

for turning 1002

strength 432

tensile strength 392, 430-431

thermal conductivity 378

yield strength 392, 430-431

Stamping

blank diameters 1284

fine blanking 1273

steel rule dies 1294-1297

Standard

deviation 1215-1217

nomenclature 2080

organizations 2080

wire gage (SWG) 2519

Static 156

equivalent load, bearings 2320

load rating, bearings 2320

Statistics

absolute error of the sample mean 149

analysis 148

applications 150

coefficient of variation 149

confidence interval 149

degrees of freedom 149

distribution curves 148

example, manufacturing 152-153

normal distribution curves 148

normal distributions 1215

population mean 149

relative error of the sample mean 149

sample mean 148

sample standard deviation 148

standard deviation 1216

Students distribution 151

t-distribution 151

Stayed surfaces, flat 289

Steel

alloy

compositions of SAE 404-405

general properties 424-429

Bessemer 410, 412

carbon steel structure 465

carburizing 411, 413, 484

case hardening 484

cast for gears 2147

castings 1311

brinell hardness number 1312

elongation 1312

mechanical properties 1312

tensile strength 1312

castings

yield point 1312

chromium

compositions 418

nickel austenitic 415, 418

classification 396, 401

cobalt high-speed 872-873

cobaltcrom 496

color of heated 480

coloring 1412

columns, pipe 287-288

corrosion-resisting 415-418

Damascus 399

deep-drawing 410

elongation 391

free-cutting 412, 414

stainless 415

gearing, hardness 2148

gearing, industrial 2148

hardening 461, 470

hardness 391

and tensile strength relationships 509

of heat-treated 424-429

heat treatment 407-408, 461-470, 496-505

of high speed steel 496

high-speed 438

hypereutectoid 468

hypoeutectoid 468

induction hardening 487

killed 410

molybdenum

compositions 415, 418

high-speed 446

nickel chromium, SAE compositions 415, 418

nickel, SAE compositions 415

SAE compositions 404-405

nitriding 485

numbering systems for 398-400

pipe

columns, allowable concentric loads 287-288

rimmed 410

rivets 1636

rolled sections, shape designations 2507

rule dies 1294-1297

cutting edges 1295

dimensions 1296

heat treatment 1296

makes 1296

SAE specification numbers 398, 400-401

sheet, standard gage 2522-2523

silicon-manganese, SAE compositions 404-405

stainless 406-407, 415, 418

strength 432

and hardness data 424-429, 432

strength

of heat-treated 432

structural shapes 2507-2516

subzero treatment 502-505

taps 1921

tensile strength 391

tool 433-459

tungsten

compositions 448

high-speed 448

twist drill 872-873

yield strength 391

Steel rule dies 1296

Steel wool 966

Steel-threading screws

cast metals 1619, 1621

depth of panetration 1621

drill sizes 1621

hole sizes 1621

plastics 1619, 1621

Stellite alloy 982

Step bearings 2243, 2249-2252

STI tapped holes 1519

STI threaded hole data 1521-1522

Stock, amount required for screw machine production 1106

Stoke 2602

Straight

bevel gears 2030

line 39

line column formula 282

pins 1657-1659

designation 1659

materails 1659

Straight pipe threads

free fitting mechanical joints 1865

hose couplings 1865

locknuts 1865

mechanical joints 1865-1866

Straight splines, British Standard 2183

Strain

lateral 201

longitudinal 201

ratio of 201

Strength

hollow vs. solid shafts 304

of polygon connections 2188

of screws and bolts 1442

riveted joints 1636

struts or columns 282-288

tensile 201

ultimate 201

yield perforated metal 2521

Strength of materials 200

angles, lengths of bent 2507

beams 269-273

shock stresses in 280

channels, elements of 2513, 2517

columns 282-288

AISC formula 286

columns

AREA formula 282

Euler formula for 283-286

Gordon formula 282, 284

Johnson formula for 283

combined stresses 212-215

compression 202

critical speeds of shafts 303

curved beams 276

cylinders 291-295

definitions 200-201

deflection of beams 257-268, 274

Euler formula 283-286

factors of safety 205

ferrous metals 432

flat plates 289-291

heat-treated steels 424-429

influence of temperature 394

Izod impact 390, 424-429

J. B. Johnson column formula 283-286

keyways in shafts 302

linear deflection in shafts 299

mechanical properties 200-201

metals, properties of 394

modulus of elasticity 201

modulus of shear 201

moment of inertia 235-244

built-up sections 234

perforated metals 2521

pipe columns 287-288

plates, shells, and cylinders 289-295

polar

moment of inertia 245-246, 251-256

section modulus 245-246, 251-256

rails 278

Rankine, column formula 282, 284

rings, stresses and deflections 220-221

section moduli tables 235-256

shafts 296-304

American Standard design code 302

brittle material formula for 302

critical speeds of 303

effect of keyways on strength of 302

horsepower transmitted by 296-299

torsional strength of 296-298

shear 200, 202

shells, spherical 292-294

shocks, stresses produced by 280

simple stresses 210-211

springs, shock stresses in 280

steels 432

straight-line column formula 282

stress 159, 200

areas of screw threads 1443

concentration factors

grooved shaft in torsion 209

shaft with transverse hole in bending 209

relieving 408

stress

working 205

struts or columns 282-288

taper pins, strength of 221

temperature effects 395

tensile stress 200

torsional strength of shafting 296-298

tubes 294-295

working stresses 205

Young's modulus 201

Stress 159

alternating 203-204

area of thread 1435, 1835

combined 212-215

concentration factors 206-209

grooved shaft in torsion 209

shaft with transverse hole in bending 209

contact, in cams 2210-2211

cyclic 202

disc springs 355

in beams 210-215, 257-280

in bolts when tightening 1430, 1438-1440

in involute splines 2173

in loaded ring 220-221

in shafting 300-302

in splines

allowable contact stress 2079

allowable shear 2173

in springs 280, 316-317

produced by shocks 280

relieving 408

shear 211

in beams 212-215

simple 210-211

spline teeth compressive 2174

strain curves 200-201

superposition of 212

three-dimensional, or triaxial 216-218

units and conversion of 2590-2592

working, of various materials 205

Stribeck curve 2334

Structural shapes

aluminum 2517

steel 2507-2516

angles, properties of 2514-2516

channels, properties of 2513

I- or S-shapes, properties of 2512

standard designations 2507

strength 432

wide flange, properties of 2508-2511

Structure of carbon steel 468

Stub Acme screw threads 1826, 1837-1844

alternative 1844, 1847

ANSI Standard 1837-1847

basic dimensions 1827

designations 1844

formula for determining diameters 1844

limiting dimensions 1828

shear area 1828

stress area 1828

thread data 1847

thread form 1826, 1844

wire sizes for checking 1909

29- and 60-degree 1964, 1969

Stub screw machine reamers 835

Stub tooth gearing 2037, 2042

Fellows 2042

former American Standard 2037, 2042

outside and root diameters 2036, 2043

Stub's iron and steel wire gage 2519

Studs

British 1532, 1543

drive 1663

Studs and pins

designation 1663

hole sizes 1663

material 1663

standard sizes 1663

Subtracting

decimal fractions 10

fractions 9

matrices 129

Subzero treatment of steel 502-505

carburized parts 504

Superhard tool materials (CBN) 983, 1009, 1148, 1165, 1174

Surface

coatings for metals 1413-1420

finish and hardness of bearings 2226

grinding 1192-1198

advantages 1192

common faults and possible causes 1198

common faults and possible causes in 1197-1198

principal systems 1193-1195

process data for 1196

selection of grinding wheels for 1147-1158, 1192, 1195-1196

wheel recommendations 1195-1196

of revolution, area 66

roughness

measurements 716

produced by common production methods 714-715

produced by laser cutting 1398

relationship to tolerances 714, 716

speeds, diameters and rpm

grinding wheels 1179, 1181

pulleys and sheaves 986, 988-991, 1944

speeds, diameters and rpm cutting speeds formula 986-991, 1944

Surface finish standards, list of ISO 724

Surface finish text height 723

Surface parameter symbols, ISO 724

Surface speed, CNC spindle 1233

Surface texture 710

applying symbols 717

castings 720

comparing measured values to specified limits 726

control and production 709

cutoff for roughness measurements 716

definition of terms 709, 711

drawing practices for symbols 716-718

error of form 709

finish 1132

differences between ISO and ANSI 723

flaws 709

graphical centerline. 711

instruments of measurements 715

lay 709, 720

symbols 720-721

measurement 714

area averaging methods 716

instruments 715

non-contact 715

probe microscope 715

skidded instruments 716

skidless instruments 715

profile 711

measured 711

modified 711

nominal 711

real 711

total 711

variation 2160, 2166

root mean square 714

roughness 709

average (Ra) 713, 719

evaluation length 713

parameters 713

production method 715

profile 711

sampling length 712

spacing 711

topography 712

roughness average (Ra) 713

roughness sampling length 719

sampling length 712

spatial resolution 712

standard roughness sampling lengths 719

symbols 612, 716-718, 720

lay 720-721

material removal 717

proportions of 717

system height resolution 712

topography 712

measured 712

modified 712

traversing length 712

use of symbols 717

valley 712

waviness 710, 712

evaluation length 712, 714

height 714, 720

long-wavelength cutoff 712

waviness

parameters 714

profile 712

sampling length 712

short-wavelength cutoff 712

spacing 712

topography 712

Surveyor's measure 2565

SUS (Saybolt Universal Seconds) 2338

Swing frame grinding 1199

Swiss pattern files 965

Symbols

abbreviations 2556, 2558-2559

ANSI Y14.5M 610-611

applying surface texture 717

arc and gas welding 1381-1389

arrow 1381

basic weld 1381

bearing

ball bearings 2270, 2272

cylindrical roller bearings 2273

needle bearings 2275

roller bearings 2270

self alignment roller bearings 2273

tapered roller bearings 2274

thrust ball bearings 2273

thrust tapered roller bearings 2274

between, ANSI 611

brazing 1336-1337

buttress threads 1851

cams and cam design 2190

chemical elements 372

concentricity, ANSI 611, 1222

contour and finish 1382

controlled radius, ANSI 611

diameter, ANSI 611, 1221

diamond wheel marking 1171-1174

dimensions 1382

drawing practices for surface texture 716-718

gagemakers tolerance 660

geometric characteristic 611

geometric controls

forms 612

locations 612

orientation 612

profiles 612

runout 612

straightness 612

Greek 2556

grinding wheel markings 1149-1150

hole basis 651

involute splines 2160-2161, 2168

lines for drawings 609

mechanics 2559

metric module involute splines 2178

nondestructive testing 1390-1391

parallelism, ANSI 611, 1222

perpendicularity, ANSI 611, 1223

reference line 1381

roundness, ANSI 611, 1221

runout, ANSI 611, 1223

screw thread, for tap marking 884

section lining

aluminum 610

bronze 610

cast and malleable iron 610

earth 610

insulation 610

magnesium 610

materials 610

rock 610

sand 610

steel 610

white metal 610

shaft basis 651

standard geometric characteristic engineering drawing

section lining 610

statical tolerance, ANSI 611

surface profile, ANSI 611, 1221

surface texture 717-718, 720

tolerances 649

total runout, ANSI 611, 1223

welding 1381, 1391

Synchronous belts

(see Belts and pulleys: synchronous belts )

Synthetic oils 2342

System of measurement

absolute 157

gravitational 157

Système International d'Unites (SI)

in mechanics calculations 156-160

T

Tangent 94

Tangential force 2079

Tanks

contents at given level 67-68

cylindrical, capacity in gallons 67-68

quenching bath 476-477

Tantung alloy 982

Tap dimensions

cut thread 893, 895-896, 900-901

extension taps 900

fine pitch taps 901

fractional size 898

ground thread 893, 895-898, 900-901

machine screw 898

metric size taps 899

neck and shortened thread length 897

screw thread inserts 898-899

straight pipe 903-904

taper pipe 903-904

tolerances 896

Tap drill diameters, Acme 920

Tap drill selection

(See Tapping and tap drilling: tap drills )

Tap tolerances

straight pipe 905

taper pipe 905

Taper

American (ANSI) Standard 924-936

applications of standard 935

British Standard 924

Brown & Sharpe 924, 933-934

collets 945-947

for given angle 697

gages for self-holding 932

Jacobs 937

Jarno 924, 935

machine tool spindle 924, 935

measurement methods 680

measuring with

V-block and sine bar 680

method of dimensioning 680

milling machine spindles, arbors and spindle noses 938-942

Morse 924-935

stub taper shanks 924

per foot and corresponding angles 696

pin reamers 841, 1661

pins 1659, 1662

designation 1660

diameter 1660

drilling spefications 1660

drills for 1659, 1662

hole sizes 1659

materials 1659

small ends 1660

strength 221

reamers

Brown & Sharpe 840

Morse 839

rules for figuring 697

self-holding and self-releasing 924-932

shaft ends, SAE Standard 2395

steep machine 931, 936

Taper pipe taps 916

Taper pipe threads 1861-1863

angle of thread 1864

basic dimensions 1862

external 1864

form 1861

internal 1864

lead 1864

pitch diameter formula 1861

railing joint 1865

taper 1861

thread length 1861

tolerances on taper 1864

Tapped holes 1519

Taps 888-893

blank number 902

cut thread 912

D or DU limits 887

definitions 888-893

fractional sizes 906, 913

ground thread 882, 887, 917-918

ground thread limits 906, 909-910

limits and tolerances 886-887

locational tolerance 905

M profile thread limits 906

machine screw sizes 902, 909, 917

marking 882

metric sizes 902, 906, 910

metric thread 887

metric thread in inches 918

number of flutes 902

oversize 883

pulley 882

runout tolerance 905

screw thread insert 1531

spiral point 902

straight flutes 902

straight pipe 915

styles 880

tap thread H- and L-limits 882

taper pipe 916

terms 888

thread forms 880

thread limits 885

thread tolerances 885

types of 880

undersize 883

UNS thread 882

Taps and tapping 1920-1945

automatic screw machine 1102

clearance holes

ISO metric bolts and screws 1939

CNC machine 1943

cold form tapping 1940-1942

coolant 1944

cutting oils 1117

cutting speeds 1031-1040, 1042-1044, 1102, 1922

hole size before tapping 1936-1937

Unified miniature thread 1926-1937

length of engagement and tolerances 1936

lubrication 1117

methods of tapping 1920

nitriding of 1921

numerically controlled 1943

pipe

power for driving 1943

tap drills for 1942

pipe threads

drill sizes 1942

power required 1943

pitch increased to compensate for shrinkage 1964

rake angles for various materials 1922

removing a broken tap 1942

serial taps and close tolerances 1921

speeds 1921-1922

spiral

fluted 1921

pointed 1920

square threads 920, 923

steel 1921

surface treatment of 1921

tap drills

Acme threads 920

American National threads 1934

machine screws 1935

diameter of tap drill 1925

ISO metric threads 1938

coarse pitch 1938

cold form 1942

pipe

Briggs (NPT) 1942

Whitworth 1942

Unified thread system

cold form 1941

miniature 1937

tapping specific materials 1922

alloy steel 1923

aluminium 1924

carbon steel 1922

copper alloys 1925

free cutting steel 1924

gray cast iron 1924

high temperature alloys 1924

high tensile strength steels 1923

malleable cast iron 1924

nodular cast iron 1924

stainless steel 1923

titanium and titanium alloys 1924

taps

Acme 920

drill hole size 920-921, 923

adjustable 920

markings

standard 884

square thread 920

thread series designations 884

tolerances on minor diameter 1935-1936

Unified thread form 1712

Taps and tapping tap drills

Acme threads 920

Taylor tool life equation 993

T-bolts and T-slots, ANSI Standard 1632-1633

Tebi 2562

Teflon (TFE) bearings 2266

Temper designations, aluminum alloy 530-541

Temperature

absolute 2599

boiling points, various substances 373

changes in length due to 379

critical, heat treating of steel 462, 465, 469

effect on working stresses, of springs 315-316

effects on drawing dimensions 612

effects on oil 2339, 2343

fahrenheit and celsius 2599

ignition 377

influence on strength of metals 395

judging by color, steel 480

of carbon dioxide, solid 631

of freezing mixtures 377

of ignition, various materials 377

of lead bath alloys 481

of nitrogen, solid 631

required to develop tightening stress in bolt 1433, 1435

Tempering 407-467, 479-480

double 482

in oil 481

in salt baths 481

in sand 482

lead bath temperatures 481

steel 408, 481

temperature 480

carbon steel tools 480

Tensile

modulus (See Modulus of: elasticity )

strength 201, 203-204

aluminum alloys 391, 533-541

ceramics 389

cobalt alloys 392

copper alloys 391, 514-526

copper-beryllium alloys 528

copper-silicon alloys 527

copper-zinc-tin alloys 527

Everdur 527

magnesium alloys 546

nickel alloys 392, 547-548

nonferrous metals 512

spring wire 395

stainless steel 392, 430-431

steel 391, 422-431

heat-treated 424-429

high-strength, low-alloy 421

relation to hardness 509

titanium alloys 549

wood 386

strength, alloy steel 1313

strength, carbon steel 1313

strength, steel 1312

stress 200, 203

test 204

Thermal

conductance 375

conductance units conversion 2598

conductivity 375

aluminum 377

cast iron 378

ceramics 389

copper alloys 377

nickel alloys 378

conductivity

stainless steels 378

titanium alloys 378

cracking of cutting tools 1118

energy 2599

expansion coefficients 376, 379

stresses 379

plastics 577

Thermometer scales 2599

Thicknesses, preferred

metal products 2523

uncoated metals and alloys 2522

Thin flat plate 229

Thin spherical shell

radius of gyration 232

Thread cutting, CNC 1247-1250

Thread locking 2498

Threading cam, screw machine 1101, 1105

cutting speeds, threading dies 1101

Threads and threading 1712, 1763, 1783, 1787, 1794, 1797, 1804-1847

Acme thread 1826-1849

pitch diameter allowance 1828, 1833

aerospace screws, bolts and nuts 1806

Aero-thread 1891

allowance and tolerance 1856

American microscope objective (AMO) 1887-1890

American National form 1712

angle, wire method of testing 1907

ANSI Standard

Acme thread 1826-1844

buttress thread 1851-1857

form or profile 1712

M profile thread 1783-1804

allowances 1788-1791

basic profile 1714, 1788

coarse pitch 1787-1788

coated threads 1791, 1793

crest and root form 1784-1789

data 1786

design profile, M series 1784, 1787-1788

designations 1804

external thread design 1789

external thread root 1789

fine pitch 1789

lengths of engagement 1790-1795

limiting dimensions 1798, 1825

limits and fits 1787

limits of size 1793

major diameter tolerances 1795

minor diameter tolerances 1794, 1804

pitch diameter tolerances 1795

profile data 1786

profile series 1787

symbols 1785

thread series 1785, 1789

tolerance grades 1788-1793

ANSI Standard

MJ profile thread 1804-1807

Unified thread system 1719-1769

allowances 1723-1749

basic dimensions 1750, 1759

coarse thread series 1722-1750

coated 1763

definitions 1714-1718

design profile 1720

designations 1762-1763

dimensions 1723-1749

external and internal thread forms 1712, 1766

fine and extra fine series 1722-1755

hole sizes for tapping 1763

internal and external profile 1720

limits 1723-1749, 1760

miniature screw thread 1764-1768

miniature, design dimensions 1766

pitch diameter tolerances 1762

standard series, tables of 1723-1749

thread classes 1751-1755

thread form, data and formulas 1712, 1719-1722

thread series 1720

uniform 4-, 6-, 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 28-, and 32-pitch series 1722-1759

Briggs pipe thread 1891

British Standard

buttress threads 1850

ISO metric 1806, 1824

ISO profile 1815

pipe 1870-1872

RMS thread 1887

UNJ profile 1769

Whitworth 1858-1860

casing thread 1891

change gears for lathe 1947

for fractional output 1948

modifying the quick change gearbox output 1948

changing pitch slightly 1965

chasing, cutting speeds for 1031-1044

checking by three-wire method, tables 1902, 1907

classes of tolerance 1751-1833, 1851

CNC 1247-1250

cutting calculations 1247

lathes, cutting threads 1247

long hand threading 1249

multi-start threads 1250

thread milling 1237

threading commands 1249

threading operations 1249

Cordeaux thread 1892

crest diameter tolerance 1820

cutting 1945

square 920

cutting, change gears 1947

fractional ratios 1948

Dardelet thread 1892

definitions 1714-1718

design and application data 1879

design dimensions and tolerances 1766

designation of Unified threads 1723-1763

designation symbols for 884

on taps, marks and symbols for identifying 884

deviation formulas 1819

diameter pitch combinations 1722, 1806, 1824

diameters of wires for measuring 1896

dies, maximum pitches 1965

dimensional effect of coating 1793

drunken thread 1892

dryseal pipe 1867

Echols thread 1892

electric socket and lamp base 1885

electrical fixture threads 1885

external thread tolerances 1798

formulas for three-wire measurement 1895-1896

French thread 1892

fundamental deviation 1790

gages for screw threads 1912

classification 1912

for unified screw threads 1912

standard tolerances 1918

grinding 1958-1961

centerless method 1962

Harvey grip thread 1892

helix angle 1716, 1750-1759

hole size for tapping 1763

hose coupling 1876-1877

indexable threading insert, CNC 1247

instrument makers' 1885

interference fit 1716, 1878-1883

internal threads in pipe couplings 1865

International Metric thread system 1713

ISO metric 1714, 1806, 1824

design profile 1818

designation 1818-1819

fundamental deviation formulas 1819

lengths of thread engagements 1818

lead angle 1967

length of thread engagement 1716, 1818, 1820-1823

limiting dimensions formula 1793

limits

Class 1A and 1B 1724-1749

Class 2A and 2B 1723-1749

Class 3A and 3B 1723-1749

limits and tolerance 1820-1823

Lloyd and Lloyd thread 1893

lock nut pipe thread 1893

Löwenherz 1850

M profile limits of size 1797

maximum material condition 1716

measuring screw threads 1894-1919

three wire method 1895-1912

contact pressure 1898

formulas 1899-1900, 1902, 1904, 1910-1911

accuracy 1905

Whitworth

best wire sizes 1897-1898

formulas 1900

metric screw threads

ANSI Standard

M profile 1783-1804

allowance 1783

comparison with inch threads 1783

MJ profile 1804-1807

designations 1808

diameter-pitch combinations 1805

symbols 1808

British Standard ISO metric 1815-1824

ISO metric 1714

British Standard 1815-1824

miniature 1815

trapezoidal 1808-1814

micrometers for measuring pitch diameters 1894

microscope objective thread 1886

milling 1963-1964

changing pitch of thread slightly 1964

classes of work 1964

multiple cutter method 1963

planetary method 1964

single cutter method 1963-1964

miniature

ISO metric 1815

Unified 1764-1768

minor diameter tolerances 1763

modified square thread, 10-degree 1849

molded in 592

multiple, designation 1763

multi-start threads, CNC 1250

National standard form or profile 1712

Philadelphia carriage bolt thread 1893

pipe

ANSI Standard 1861-1870

dryseal 1867-1870

taper 1861-1863

pitch 1717

pitch diameter 1717

pitch, changing slightly 1965

pitch, maximum when die cut 1964

pressure tight joints 1865

rolled lamp base threads 1885

SAE standard screw thread 1893

saw-tooth 1850

screw thread, definition 1718

self-forming screws 1607-1610, 1615

self-tapping screws 1610

Sellers screw thread 1893

sharp V-type thread 1712

single point threading, CNC 1247

spark plug threads 1884

square thread 1849

ten-degree modified 1849

stress area 1435, 1443, 1718, 1835

Acme thread 1828, 1832

Unified fine thread 1750

stub Acme screw threads 1826, 1837-1844

stub thread, 60-degree 1847

tap drill sizes 1926-1934

taper, measurement by wire method 1911

thread calculations 1247

thread cutting, CNC 1247

thread forms 1712

thread grinding

accuracy obtainable 1958

from the solid 1960

multi-ribbed wheels 1959

number of wheel passes 1959-1960

ribbed wheel for fine pitches 1960

roughing and finishing wheels 1959

single edge wheel 1958

wheels 1958

and work rotation 1960

grain size 1962

hardness of grade 1961

speeds 1961

truing 1961

types for 1958

work speeds 1961

thread milling, CNC 1237

thread rolling 1953-1957

advantages of process 1956

automatic screw machines 1954

blank diameter 1954

dies, cylindrical 1953

dies, flat 1953

in automatic screw machines 1954

machines used 1954

precision thread rolling 1954

production rates 1953

speeds and feeds 1956

steels 1954

thread selection 1762

tolerance system 1790, 1816

tolerances

grade dimensions 1797

of external threads 1795

of pitch diameter 1795

tools

relief angles, single-point 1945-1946

tools for square threads 920

trapezoidal metric thread 1808, 1810, 1814

formulas 1809

US Standard 1712

watch 1764-1768

Whitworth 1888

Whitworth

truncated 1888, 1890

wire sizes for checking pitch diameters 1896-1897

Three-dimensional stress 216-218

Three-wire measurement

gears 2126-2144

screw threads 1895-1912

Thrust bearing (see Bearings: thrust )

Thumb screws

dimensions 1704

flat-head type 1701, 1704-1705

lengths 1704

materials 1701

points 1705

cone point 1705

cup point 1705

dog point 1705

flat point 1705

oval point 1705

threads 1705

types 1701

Tin lead, plating 1415

Tin plating 1420

Tin-base alloys, die casting 1322

Tin-lead alloys for soldering 1329

Titanium and titanium alloys

coefficient of expansion 378

density 378

melting points 378

properties 547, 549

specific heat 378

speeds and feeds 1008, 1044, 1112

thermal conductivity 378

Titanium Metals Corp. 549

Titanium carbides as cutting tool materials 981

T-nuts, ANSI Standard 1634

Toggle joint 179

Tolerances 760, 1816

ANSI Standard 634

application of tolerances 628

bilateral and unilateral 627

symbols 611, 649

ANSI symbols 1220-1223

ball and roller bearing 2279-2289

British Standard 662

British Standard ISO threads 1816

buttress threads 1851-1852, 1855

clearance fit 648

compression spring 329-332

core drill, metric 869

cut thread 913

cylindrical fits 627

designation of limits and fits 648

dimensions on drawings 627

drilled holes 872

extension spring 329-332

fundamental deviations 662

gagemakers 660

gages, direction of tolerances on 628

gear, composite tooth to tooth 2074

gear, composite total 2074

grades relative to machining processes 636, 661

hole basis 648

honing 1205

interference fit 648

involute splines, inch 2157

involute splines, metric 2178, 2181

ISO metric threads 1816

crest diameter tolerance 1820

finished uncoated threads 1820, 1823

tolerance classes 1817

tolerance grades 1817

tolerance positions 1817-1818

tolerances classes 1817

keys and keyways 2388

knurling 1214

limits and fits 662

machine screw taps 907-908

nut threads 1816

obtainable by various operations 634, 636, 661

preferred series of 634

relationship to surface roughness 714, 716

screw thread inserts 917-918

shaft basis 648

symbols 611, 1220-1223

tapped holes 1935

taps 880, 907-908, 913

thread gage 1915

torsion springs 338-345

transition fits 648

twist drill, metric 869

Unified screw tap threads 908, 913

Unified thread gages 1918

unilateral and bilateral 627

Tolerancing and dimensions 2376

Tolerancing and geometric dimensioning 612

Ton

long and short 2587

metric 2587

Tool

change schedule 1084-1085

compensation, NC 758-760

contour, cutting tools 733

cost per batch 1085

cost per edge 1086

cost, cutting 1085

forming 772-783

grade, cutting 1029

grinding, angles 733-739

holders 742-748

letter symbols 744

indexable inserts 740-748, 758-760, 767

knurling 1210-1214

life 983-984, 1064, 1072, 1084

adjusting 1005-1006, 1010, 1013, 1029

adjusting factors

drilling 1029

end milling 1029

face milling 1029

reaming 1029

colding relation 1067

cutting speed 1077

drilling 1076

economic 1080

economy 1080

feed speed 1077

global optimization 1081

grinding 1076

milling 1076

optimization models 1080

optimum 1082

surface finish 1074

taylor's equation 1065-1067

turning 1076

life envelope 1069

life factors for turning

carbides 1005

CBN 1005

ceramics 1005

cermets 1005

polycrystalline diamond 1005

materials 761-771, 979-983

nose radius compensation, NC 758-760

shanks, ANSI Standard for milling machines 940

sharpening

carbide tools 971

grinding wheels for 971-974

twist drills 968-971

single-point 733, 875-876

steels 433-459

air hardening 453

alloying elements effects 437-438

applications 445

chemical compositions 439

chromium types 449

classification of 438

cold work 452-453

cutting speed for 1001, 1019-1020, 1036

decarburization limits 459

dimensional tolerances 459

faults and failures, common 436-440

grindability of 436, 1159-1163

hardening 435

hardness 436

high-carbon, high-chromium 452

high-speed 446

hot work 449, 451

machinability 435

machining allowances 459

mechanical properties 433

mill production forms 458-459

steels

mold 453, 455

molybdenum types 446, 451

numbering system 398, 400

oil hardening 453

properties of 433-436

shock resisting 453, 455

special purpose 453-457

speeds drilling, reaming, and threading 1036

speeds, milling 1019-1020

speeds, turning 1001

tolerances on dimensions 459

toughness 436, 439

tungsten types 448

water hardening 457-458

wear resistance 436

trouble-shooting checklist 984

wear 967-969, 1063

Tooling cost equivalent 1085

Tooling cost time 1085

Tooth rest position

milling cutter grinding 819

reamer grinding 823

Torches, metal cutting 1367

Torque 156

calculating, for tightening bolts 178

capacity

formulas involute spline 2171

spline fittings 2186

clamping force 1436

coefficient 1437-1438

electric motor 2481, 2488

pull-up 2480

relationship to angular acceleration 187

starting, small bearings 2304

tension relation 1439

tightening, for bolts 1428-1440

torsion springs 332, 334

unit conversion 2593

Torque test 1524

Torque test spacer 1530

Torsion

and bending of shafts, combined formulas 210, 216, 300-302

deflection of shafts, formula 298-299

formulas for shafts 296-298

modulus 210, 345-347

springs, design 338

strength of shafts 296-298

Torus

polar moment of inertia 248

volume 86

Total indicator reading, NC 1262

Toughness

HSLA steels 421

tool steels 439

Transmission chains 2451

cast roller chains 2451

detachable chains 2451

nonstandard 2451

pintle chains 2451

roller chain sprockets 2454

caliper diameter 2458

classes 2456

diameters 2456-2457

flange thickness 2459

manufacture 2471

materials 2471

proportions 2460

roller chains 2451, 2453

attachments 2455

bar steel sprockets 2460

bent link plate 2455

bore and hub diameters 2466

bottom diameter 2458

center distances and chain links 2466

cutters for sprockets 2471

cutting sprocket tooth forms 2470

design procedure 2474

dimensions 2453

drive ratings 2472

hob design 2469

horsepower ratings 2461-2474

idler sprockets 2467

installation and alignment 2473

keys, keyways and set-screws 2456

length of driving chain 2467

lubrication 2473

multiple strand cast sprockets 2460

nomenclature 2452

nonstandard 2451

numbering system 2454

parts 2452

pin dimensions 2455

pitch 2454

selection 2461

single strand cast sprockets 2460

straight link plate 2455

tolerances 2454, 2458

tooth form 2468

tooth section profile dimension 2459

types 2451

ultimate tensile strength 2454

types 2451

Transmission shafting design 300-302

Transpose of a matrix 130

Trap rock, strength 394

Trapezium area 71

Trapezoid

area 70

center of gravity 223

moment of inertia 237

radius of gyration 237

section modulus 237

Trapezoidal screw threads 1808-1814

data 1810-1814

formulas 1809

Trepanning 1051, 1403

Tresca shear theory (plastics) 576

Triangle

acute 70, 94, 100-101

area 70

center of gravity 222

equilateral 94

geometry of 55

isosceles 94

moment of inertia 237

obtuse 70, 94, 100-101

radius of gyration 237

right-angle 70, 94, 97-99

section modulus 237

solution 94-101

oblique angle 100-101

right angle 97-99

Triaxial stress 216-218

Tribology, see lubrication 2333

Trigonometric

formulas 95-96

functions

of angles 94-113

signs of 95

using calculator to find 109

identities 95-96

tables 105-108

Trochoid curve 2033

Troostite 479

Trouble-shooting

broaching 961

drilling 1035

machining difficulties 985-986

reaming 828

tools 437-440

Troy weight for gold and silver 2587

Truing and dressing grinding wheels 1166-1170

T-section

moment of inertia 242

radius of gyration 242

section modulus 242

T-slots and T-bolts, ANSI Standard 1632-1633

T-slot cutters, standard 788

Tube

collapsing pressure 294-295

gages 2518

maximum allowable pressures 295

strength of 294-295

subjected to external pressure

factor of safety 295

thickness and working pressure 294-295

wall thickness gages 2507, 2518

Tungsten

carbide tools grinding 971-973

carbide tools materials 981

electrodes, welding 1358-1363

powdered alloys

density 393

elongation 393

powdered alloys

hardness 393

rupture strength 393

ultimate strength 393

yield strength 393

steels 448

compositions 442, 448

high-speed, heat-treatment of 496

tool steels 448

Turner's sclerometer 509

Turning

and facing, insert holder 746-748

cutting speeds for

copper alloys 1007

ferrous cast metals 1003-1004

hard-to-machine materials 1009

light metals 1008

plain carbon and alloy steels 997-1000

stainless steels 1002

superalloys 1009

titanium and titanium alloys 1008

tool steels 1001

unusual materials 1052

cutting time for 1052

insert holder 746-748

speed adjustment factors

depth of cut 1005

feed 1005

lead angle 1005

speeds and feeds 996-1010, 1102

Twist drill 842, 846-872

equivalent of gage or letter size 844-848

grinding (sharpening) 968-970

length of point on 865

parallel shank jobber 870

parallel shank long series 871

tolerances, metric 869

types 842

Type metal 543

U

U.S.

Board of Supervising Inspectors 289

Dept. of Commerce, formula for pressure in tubes 294

gallons into liters 2585

standard screw threads 1712

standard sheet metal gage 2522

UK gallons to liters 2582, 2585

Ultimate strength

common materials 394

compressive 202

copper-base powdered alloys 393

iron and steel 432

iron-base powdered alloys 393

nonferrous metals 512

plastics 561

shear 202

tungsten-base powdered alloys 393

Ultrasonic fluxless soldering 1331

Uncoated metals and alloys, preferred thicknesses, metric 2522

Undercut, in spur gearing 2051

Unified numbering system for metals

(See UNS number)

Unified thread system

cold form tap drill sizes 1941

screw thread form 1712-1714, 1718-1769

British UNJ 1769

diameter-pitch combinations 1722

hole sizes for tapping 1763, 1926-1933

miniature screw thread 1764-1768

standard series 1720, 1723-1749

coarse thread 1750

constant pitch 1752-1759

extra-fine thread 1751-1752

fine thread 1750-1751

thread classes 1760-1762

thread designation 1762-1763

thread formulas 1721

threaded fasteners

bolts, screws, and nuts 1445-1487, 1532, 1549, 1572, 1582-1584, 1586-1588, 1590-1593, 1596, 1599, 1607, 1622, 1700, 1705

tensile stress area 1435-1436, 1443

tensile stress due to tightening 1431

Uniform motion 182

Unit systems

cgs 157, 2560

MKS 157, 2560

MKSA (m-kg-s-A) 2560

SI metric 2560, 2562-2563

US customary 2564

Units of measure and conversion factors

angular and circular 2566

Apothecaries' fluid 2583

area 2579

barrel 2583

dry 2583

electric wires 2579

energy 2597

flow 2586

fluid 2582-2583

force 2592

heat 2594

inertia and momentum 2603

length 2565

mass and weight 2587

Apothecaries' weight 2587

Avoirdupois or commercial 2587

Troy weight 2587

miscellaneous 2603

nautical 2565

power 2594, 2597

pressure and stress 2590

shipping 2582

surveyors 2565

temperature 2599

thermal conductance 2598

velocity and acceleration 2602

viscosity 2602

volume 2582-2583

work 2597

Universal joints 2358

angular velocity of driven shaft 2358

intermediate shaft 2359

maximum and minimum velocities 2358

UNS number 398

copper alloys 514-526

copper and copper alloys 513

number 402-403

plain carbon, alloy and tool steel 398, 400, 404-405

series of different metal 398

stainless steel 398, 406

Upsetting, steel for cold 410

V

V.I. (Viscosity Index) 2339

Vacuum furnace brazing 1336

Van Keuren gear measuring tables 2126-2139

Vanadium, gearing material 2148

Variable speed belts (see Belts and pulleys: variable speed belts )

Varnish, pattern 1318

V-belts (see Belts and pulleys: V-belts )

Vector and scalar quantities 160

Velocity 156, 182-185

angular 182, 184

rpm to radian per second conversion 184

converting to rpm 986-991

linear 182

of points on rotating bodies 184

unit conversion 2602

Vernier scale

dual metric-inch 675-676

reading 674

reading a metric 675

reading on a protractor 674

Versed sine and versed cosine 109

V-flange tool shanks and retention knobs 943-944

Vickers hardness 506

Viscosity

absolute 2338

conversion table for lubricating oils 2602

index (V.I.) 2339

kinematic 2338

lubrication 2338

temperature chart for SAE oils 2229

unit conversion 2602

Vitrified bonded wheels 971-972, 1148

coolants for 1116

thread grinding 1958

Volume

barrel 86

cone 83

cube 81

cylinder 82

hollow 83

portion of 82-83

ellipsoid 84

frustum of cone 83

geometrical figures 81-86

measures 2582

of solids 81-86

paraboloid 85

paraboloidal segment 86

prism 81

prismoidal formula 65

pyramid 81

frustum of 82

solid of revolution 65

specific gravity 381-382

sphere 84

hollow 85

spherical

sector 84

segment 84

wedge 85

zone 85

square prism 81

torus 86

units and conversion of 2582, 2586

wedge 82

V-process, casting 1315

V-projections, fine-blanking tools 1274

V-shaped groove, checking by pins 699

V-thread 1712

Vulcanized fiber, strength 394

W

Wahl spring curvature correction factor 315

Washburn & Moen wire gage 2519

Washers

ANSI, lock 1472

ANSI, plain 1469-1474, 1511, 1514

Belleville or disc spring 345, 351

British Standard metric 1546-1548

metric spring 1544-1546

designations 1547

metric 1511, 1514

designations 1514

materials 1514

preferred sizes 1469-1472

spring lock type 1473-1476

tooth lock type 1473-1476

Watch screw threads 1764-1768

Water contamination of oil 2353

Watt equivalent 2594

Waviness 709

height values 714

Wax in oil 2340

Wear life factor involute spline 2173

Wear resistance cutting tool 967-968

Wedge 176

center of gravity 227

mechanical principle of 176

spherical, volume 85

volume 82

Weight 158

angles, structural steel 2514-2516

avoirdupois or commercial 2587

castings, from pattern weight 1319

channels, structural 2513, 2517

earth or soil 384

hollow shafts 304

I-beams 2508-2512

metric measures 2587

mol 384

molecular 384

nails and spikes 1706

of natural piles 383

per feet of wood 386

solid fuels 383

specific gravity 381-382

steel S-sections 2512

troy, for gold and silver 2587

wide flange, steel 2508-2511

wood 386-387

Weldability, HSLA steels 421

Welding 1338-1391, 1400

aluminum 1365

ANSI welding symbols 1381-1391

application of 1385-1389

nondestructive testing 1390-1391

arc cutting of metals 1368

basic symbols 1381-1382

codes, rules, regulations, specifications 1383

controls 1342

current ranges diameter, sheet metal 1356

current selection 1361

cutting

metals with electric arc 1368

metals with oxidizing flame 1367

with lasers 1396

definitions and symbols 1381-1389

designations 1384

dies 1390

dimensions 1382

electrode 1338-1339, 1343, 1361-1363

AWS E60XX 1355

AWS E70XX 1357

carbon steels 1339

characteristics 1356

composition 1361

current ranges 1361

diameters 1356

sizes 1339

stainless steels 1339

electrode

thoriated 1362

zirconiated 1362

electron beam welding 1373

FCAW (flux-cored arc) 1347-1354

all position electrodes 1350-1351

alloy steeels 1347

carbon steels 1347, 1349

contact tip recess 1350

deposition rates 1352-1354

electrodes 1347-1348, 1353

diameter 1352

gas shielded 1347, 1349

material condition 1348

porosity and worm tracks 1350

selection 1348

settings 1348

shielding gases 1354

stainless steeels 1347

weld requirements 1348

fill passes 1376, 1379-1380

filler metals 1363

fluxes 1338

gas shielded, all position 1347

GMAW (gas metal arc)

electrode diameters 1339

metal thickness 1344-1345

optimum settings 1346

shielding gases 1340, 1342

alloy steels 1340

aluminum 1342

carbon steels 1340

stainless steels 1341

spray transfer 1344-1346

welding sheet steel 1340

GTAW (gas tungsten arc) 1358-1363

aluminum 1362

current 1358

EWP electrode 1362

filler metals 1363

selecting tungsten electrode 1361-1363

shielding gases 1363

hard-facing 1369

laser

cutting 1396-1400

welding 1400

letter designations for processes 1384

materials used in welding 1381

nondestructive testing 1390-1391

PAW (plasma arc) 1363

applications 1364

cutting 1366-1367

equipment 1364

fusion 1365

gases for 1363

of aluminum 1365

surface coating 1366-1367

surfacing 1366

pipe welding 1374

plasma arc welding

gases 1363

shielding gases 1364

argon 1364

helium 1364

hydrogen 1364

plastics 594

process letter designation 1384

process names 1338

shielding gas 1363

SMAW (shielded metal arc) 1354-1357

characteristic of electrodes 1354

specifications 1383

supplementary symbols 1382-1383

symbol 1382

arrow side 1387

bead type back 1386

bevel groove 1385

built up surface 1386

electron beam 1385, 1389

fillet 1385-1386

intermittent fillet 1387

letter designations 1383

melt thru weld 1389

plug groove 1385

process 1383

resistance-seam 1385

single pass back 1386

square groove 1385

U- groove 1388

V-groove 1387

tungsten electrode compositions 1361

Weldon shanks

dimensions of 792-802

end mills 792-793, 795

Wheel life in grinding

(See Grinding: wheel life )

Wheels

abrasive cutting 952-954

and pulleys in mechanics 177-178

buffing 1409

diamond 971-973, 1171-1177

dressing 1166-1169

Geneva 178

grinding 1147-1170

diamond 1171-1177

mechanical principles of 177

polishing 1406, 1409

silicon carbide 971-972

White cast iron 1309

White metal bearing alloys 2262-2263

Whitworth

bolts, screws, nuts, washers, and studs 1532-1535, 1572-1573, 1585, 1606

screw thread form 1712, 1858-1860, 1870-1871, 1886-1890, 1892-1893

drills for pipe taps 1942

measuring 1897-1898, 1900-1901, 1903

truncated thread 1888

wire size for measuring threads 1897

Wide-flange shapes, steel 2508-2511

moment of inertia 2508-2511

radius of gyration 2508-2511

section modulus 2508-2511

weight per foot 2508-2511

Wind chill temperature 2604

Wind velocity to pressure 2604

Windlass 177-178

Wing nuts and screws

nuts

dimensions 1697-1700

finish 1701

materials 1701

standard 1697-1700

types 1697

screws 1697-1705

dimensions 1701

lengths 1704

materials 1701

points 1705

cone point 1705

cup point 1705

dog point 1705

flat point 1705

oval point 1705

threads 1705

types 1701

Wire

checking screw threads 1895

Acme threads 1900, 1909

buttress threads 1911

contact pressure 1898

formulas for large lead angles 1898-1909

taper screws 1910

circular mill measurement 2579

copper 2520

diameters, raised to powers 348

EDM 1298, 1307

music 348, 2518

nails and spikes 1706

preferred thicknesses 2523

rod gages 2518

sheet metal gages 2522-2523

size for checking gears 2126

for external spur gears 2126

for helical gears 2140

for internal gears 2135

for spur and helical gears 2135

spring, tensile strength 395

tubing, wall thickness gages 2518

wire gages 2518

Wood

bearings 2267

bonding 2494

boring 388

compression perpendicular to grain 385

compression strength 386

crushing strength 385-386

density 387

dimensions of sawn lumber 387

hardmetal tooling for 771

ignition temperatures 377

machinability 387

maximum bending load 386

mechanical properties of 386

effect of pressure treatment 386

mechanical property 385

modulus of rupture 385-386

mortising 388

patterns 1317

planing 388

sanding 388

screws 1707

shaping 388

shear strength 386

shear strength parallel to grain 386

tensile strength 386

tooling for wood and nonmetals 771

Woodruff keys and keyseats

ANSI 2390

cutters 808

key 2394

dimensions 2391-2392

number 2394

keyseat

dimensions 2393-2394

hub 2394

milling cutter 2394

shaft 2394

Woodruff keys and keyways 2382

designation 2382

materials 2382

tolerances 2382

Woodruff keys dimensions 2383

Woodruff keyways dimensions 2384

Woodworking cutters 771

Work 156, 189

formulas 189

formulas for work and power 193

maximum load in bending

wood 385

relation to energy 189

sheet metal 1272

units conversion 2597

Working stress 201, 205, 213

at elevated temperature 316

factors of saftey 205

of bolts 1442

shafts 302

springs 302, 316-317

Worm gearing 2096-2099

addendum 2097

ANSI Standard, fine-pitch 2096-2098

effect on profile and pressure angle

of cutting diameter 2098

of production method 2098

fine-pitch 2096-2099

formulas for dimensions 2097

hobs for 2096

lead angles 2096-2097

material 2099, 2150

number of threads or "starts" 2099

multi-thread worms 2099

single-thread worms 2099

outside diameter 2097

pitch diameters, range 2098

pitches, standard 2096

pressure angles 2096, 2098

proportions 2097

ratio of teeth to thread starts 2099

tooth form of worm and wormgear 2098

Worm wheel, indexing movements 2024

Wrapped spring clutches 2363

Wrench

clearances

for box wrenches, metric 1468

for hex wrenches 1464, 1466

for open end wrenches 1463

for spacing of bolts 1462

openings, ANSI Standard 1463

torque

cap screws 1429

steel bolts 1429

studs 1429

Wrinkling

sheet metal 1282

Wrought

copper alloys 518-526

copper-beryllium 528

iron

strength 432

temperature effect on 394

thickness gage for sheet 2522-2523

Y

Yield point 201

for various materials 201

heat-treated steels 424-429

iron and steel 432

plastics 561

steel 1312

Yield strength 201

aluminum alloys 391, 533-541

carbon steel 1313

cobalt alloys 392

compressive 202

copper alloys 391, 514-526

Cu-base powdered alloys 393

Cu-beryllium alloys 528

Cu-silicon alloys 527

Everdur 527

iron-base powdered alloys 393

magnesium alloys 546

nickel alloys 392, 547-548

nonferrous metals 512

perforated metal 2521

plastics 561

shear 202

spring wire 395

stainless steel 392, 430-431

steel 391, 422-431

high-strength, low-alloy 421

titanium alloys 549

tungsten-base powdered alloys 393

Young's modulus (see Modulus of: elasticity )

Z

Zero, absolute 2599

Zerol bevel gears 2030, 2083

Zinc plating 1420

Zinc-base alloys, die casting 1321

ZNP curve 2334

Z-section

moment of inertia 244

radius of gyration 244

section modulus 244